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TF1E LUMP CITY MINER: LUMP CITY, MONTANA. 1•••• E Fes - the eak has hen .ite. y te) use. la )rni- awl ec. Do. * . 99 :hat IS, th any est one famous in past your .ee the of the o. moan. no„ -. • ,‚NE Louis Ural ELI:S ( 1.41 • on: «uree da- forrrs. curet rebee «hPh - nr,goratri.the er,l) (toe lacth•re. try the E AHAE RT 1 TONI I HOP r Mothere, t Malt an •plefIlknenn, In es and Is th lied t'y UG co. he Dr In lent cured thou. le .10 , -• •nd Ui re F es. Mend r free hook. sad ‚meter mail,ll'Ut.Y00 ITION elan MO ; , tea. ION 1895. per When Y . 1 titer. SCIENCE LT TO DATE. RECORD OF RECENT INVEN- TIONS AND DISCOVERIES. The Unicycle Is Being Perfected An Interesting and Instructive Problem IM Popular Science — Piercing a Ni' kel — More Spots on the Sun. NOVEL unicycle has recently burn in vented by a Frenchman named Gauthier. A geed idea of its construc- tion may be ob- tained from the ac- companying picture taken from Cassiers Magazine. Many at- tempts have been made during the la« few years to construct a practical unicycle, and this is probably the best specimen yet produced. The diameter of the wheel Is a little more than six feet, and the spokes are all bent in one direction, so that theteiders' center of gravity is below the center of the wheel. This device is an interesting novelty, but its coming into general use lit doubt - :ill. No data have been given as to the (peed of the wheel. Cholera Precautions. Cholera has again broken out in the East. The Mecca pilgrims are experi- encing a severe visitation. Constanti- nople is alarmed. St. Petersburg re- ports twenty-two cases, thirteen or ovicrn fatal, in one locality, while in oth- ees there have been some hundreds of witt a proportionate number of cl(aths. The eleven thousand pilgrims had come from all quarters of the world, and as at the end of their visit they scattered to their homes, there is no tell- ing where the disease will end. Among the pilgrims there are always many who turn their faces toward America, and who may, in their clothing or other ef- fects, bring cholera germs to our shores. It is not unusual for this disease to break out in Egypt and Turkey as well as Russia in the month of March. Cold and environment have little to do with the incipient stages. There are English troops quartered at Cairo, and English authorities are deeply concerned at the exposure of the soldiers to the epidemic. Th.> rank and file are not fastidious about their associates, and the appre- hension on the part of the government is not without excellent foundation. An ounce of prevention is worth a great many pounds of cure, and as weather prophets tell us we are to have an ex- ceedingly dry and hot summer, the quarantine authorities and health boards of this country should be on the alert that no suspected source of infec- tion be permitted to enter our borders. Fifty Thousand Truants. The Board of Education of New York City has received a summary of the school census recently taken by the po- lice. According to this report there are 168,020 male and 171,736 female school children in this city. The table shows there are 50,069 truants, which means an expenditure of between $5,000,000 and $6,e00,000 for new schools before these delinquents can be taken care of. There 13 now $6,500,000 available for the erec- tion of new school buildings and it is estimated that twenty -live of them will be required. A Soap for Cleaning Silk. A soap for this purpose is made by heating I pound cocoanut oil to 96 degrees F., adding 1 / 2 pound caustic soda, and mixing thoroughly. Then heat la pound white Venetian turpen- tine, add to the soap, and again mix thoroughly. The mixture is covered and left for four hours, then heated again, and 1 pound of ox gall is added to it and well stirred. Next. pulverize some perfectly dry, good curd soap and add It to the g LII soap in sullicient quantity to make it solid -1 or 2 pounds of curd soap will be needed. When cold the mass should be pressed into cakes. Piercing a We know that steel is much harder than nickel or silver, but a steel needle Is go very slender that it seems impossi- ble to force it through a coin. The feat, however. Is very simple and may easily be accomplished. The tirai thIngels to insert a needle in * cork so that the point nee - Hy comes through If the larger end of the needle prejeet at the upper end 'if th e em i r , snap it eff with a pair of shears, ao that It ma', be flush with the sot fare of the enek Place a ril , kle upon two blo c k s o r wood, se ah..wn in cut. and put the cork on It. with the sharp end or the needle 'tan. [ -urge. Give the cork a quick. '.bari ith a hammer and the nee - ‚HP. 1,PInz Una to bend owing to trie Rupp,' t It by: lhe' irk. wiii ea s ily thu.ugh t ei[ kel A 'elver quarter he readily used in (dace of the kel The Depths ef Coal Ilire.. M. Grouemeteit proposal to sink a shaft 1,560 m. In depth has attracted general attention to the depth of existing mines. Some American technical journal, c)aere that there 13 e I•opper mine tio Michigan with [t shaft 1,972 tn. in depth. M Haton de la Goapilhere, director of the Paris School of Mines, has been inter- viewed on the subject by a correspond- ent ot La Nature, to whom he gave some Interesting details. From the data in his possession he found the greatest depths of mine shafts did not exceed 1,200 tu. Beyond that it was only a question of bore holes. M. L. Pouseigue, director of the Ronchamp Mines, in the Haute Saone, has made inquiries into what were the greatest depths atta‘tisd'In Europe. In Bohemia, at Pibrarn, he found rue Marie shaft with a depth of 1,130 m., the Adalbert shaft with the same depth, and the Franz Joseph with exactly 1,e00 no. The Sainte-Henriette shafts at Fienu, near Mons, Belgium, are said to hold the record, with a depth of 1,200 m. Be- tween 1,000 no. and 1,200 no. the temper- ature of the rock was 45 degrees; thanks to good ventilation, the atmos- phere of the pit at that depth was suc- cessfully lowered to 20 degrees, although even at that temperature cou. tinuous work was trying. A Drawing of Sun Spots. I take the liberty of sending you a drawing of the sun as observed by nee May 19, 5 p. m., with a 3 -inch instru- ment, power one hundred. The two large spots are fine specimens of typical sun spot phenomena, while the facula\ about the developing spots at the edge of the disk seem to afford good examples of the first stages of sun spot develop- ment. L. H. Horner. Springfield, Mass. American Digger* in Greece. A gymnasium and other well -paved buildings have been uncovered at Eretria, as well as three inscriptions, three heads, and some good architec- tural fragments. The excavation of the theater has been nearly completed. The excavations among the ancient Greek ruins at Eretria have been carried on some years by the American S[•hool of Classical Studies at Athens. The gymnasium and other buildings which have been uncovered are prob- ably part of the buildings on each side of the ancient street laid bare last year between the theater and the nasal school of King Otho. When the houses found last year were cleared a floor of cement and peb- bles was discovered about a yard be- low the surface. The well -paved build- ings mentioned by Mr. Peabody art doubtlecs of a similar construction. Improved Drawbrhiges. How to use the rivers and canals that run through large cities, and yet provide safe and simple bridges for them, has long been a puzzle to civil engineers. The new Van Buren street bridge in Chicago shows some novel ideas in con- struction, and will doubtless be a model after which many will be built. Imag- ine two enormous, elongated pears so tipped over toward each other that their stems meet, and you have the founda- tion principle of this bridge The meet- ing point of the stems is t o railing of the bridge, which is of the usual height. Now tip these peara back upon their blossom ends, and the shape of the bridge when open is approximately given. This form of construction has advantages, in that no one can drive through the draw or stand on the bridge, as the tracks elevate to some- thing more than an angle of forty -eve degrees. The preponderant weight reste on very heavy stone piers, and when tipped upright there is none or the tre- mendous leverage which is a perpetual strain on those built after ordinary plans. The opening leaves the entire width of the channel free, and there is no danger of collision of masts or of dif- ficulties on account of the narrownesi of the waterway. JUST TEN HUNDRED. The Number of Servants in q•irea Vic- toria's Household Queen Victoria's household is a large one, consisting of just under a thou- sand persons, for the maintenance of whom the nation sets apart the sum of $2,500,000 every year. Most of the poste are sinecures or fixtures for life, says the Boston Globe. In the early part ot Queen Victoria's reign a mis- tress of the robes nosy possibly have done a few hours' work in the year, giving orders that the apparel of the sovereign should be carefully pre- served from moth and dust, renewing the regal ermine, velvet and lace at stated times and seeing that the crowen jewels were always locked up safely after a public airing. She could also aflix her name to warrants empowering one worthy tradesman to sell sewing 'cotton to the royal 'household and al- lowing others to put up the royal arms over their doors because their various wares were bought by personages ot illustrious degree. Harriet `euther- land's signature was always most as good an addition to business advertise- ments as \To the Queen\ emblazoned In big gilt letters over the shops. Some of the posts are entirely ornamental and otheretThave very little duty at- tached to ;them. Probably the only additions / to the household since the time of senry VIII. are two steam-ap- paratue' men. Although there is no longer/a royal barge nor any pageant- ry on the Thames there are still a bargemaster . .and a wate.rman with a salary each ef $2,000 a year. For the last 200 years there has been no hawk- ing in the forest of Windsor, but the office of grand fa/coner, held by the duke of St. Albans, has only been supe pressed within the last two years. There are four table deckers, whose sole duty is to lay the dinner cloth and see that the plates, dishes and cutlery are fairly set forth. There is also a A wax fitter, who sees the candles prop- erly disposed, anil a first and second lamplighter, who receive the same sal- ary as that of the poet laureate, which Is ee00 a year. This may seem shabby payment, but it must be confessed that most of the poets laureate have been overpaid for the stuff supplied. Then there is the \keeper of the swans,\ who annuitik pocketS $150 for looking after the sacred birds on the royal waters. Lastly, there is the \queen's rat-catcher,\ who is especially attached to Buckingham palace. His salary, $75, Is provided outside the civil list. Every session the house of commons, in committee of supply, considers this vote and gravely agrees to it.\ Keeping Old Age ut Ray. A few years ago an Italian bacteriol- ogist proclaimed that he had discovered the \germ of old age.\ The idea was scouted by all scientific men, but there may be something In it after all. At any rate. says Modern Medicine, there seems to be good ground for believing that germs, if not a specific germ, are at least one of the most important in- fluences which bring on old age. It has long been known that the pto- maine or poleonnus substance' pro- duced by microbes are capable of setting up varloUs degenerative processes. De- generative changes on the jointe, the liver, the kidneye. and other organs have been directly traced to the! cause. The writer has for Some 11mo held the opinion that the degenerative change\ inmident to advancing age are line to the same cause; namely, the polaons ab- sorbed from the alimentary canal. These poisons are conetantiy present In greater Or leas quantity, according to the extent to which fermentative and putrefagtive processes prevail in the eteeiach and intestines Three roneld era:Iona suggest at once the thought, while all human being. nuitit neceesar Ily he constantly subject to the influ- ence of polaeneue substance' generated In their own alimentary canal, and con- sequently must grow old and succumb moaner or later to the degenerative proc- pee of old age. these processiea may he greatly accelerated by enbeleting upon a diet which favorer the prodnetion of poisonous subetances in the alimentary canal. FOND OF LETTER H. Men Use It for an Initial to Names When .irty Other Would Do. \WS a peculiar thlng,\ said the knowing clerk in a betel which is noted more for its hospitality than it is for its inquisitiveness into character of its guests. \tes a peculiar fondness that the average man has for the let- ter Il as an initial. Now, I don't suppose that there are more middle names beginning with 31 than with any other letter—M or R or S or It led 'lino men out of ten, if they are ia doubt about a middle Initial, [Beetle on H,\ quotes the New York Sun. eliCrw, my middle initial Is W. but for every letter I get, except from people I know well, that has my initial right, I get three in which itta put down 11. It's very seldom, too, that you'll Mud a man with sutler -lent. strength of character to leave out the meldie initial of the man he's writing to If he doesn't know it, so he claps in an H and lets it go. There set ms to be a pre - allleig super- stitition that a man isn't just what he ought to be unless he has a middle name, and that the chances are very strong that that name begins with the eighth letter of the alphabet. \Now here's another instance' Cast your eyes over this peg.. of our reg- ister. That is mostly late guests who drop in here late at night and sign names other than their Own. See the result; 'Charles H. Joues,' John H. Smith,' George H. Robinson,\A. H. Brown.\F. W. Brown.' and so 'on. There are ten names on that one page the middle Initial of which Is H. Now, that letter Isn't an easier to write than any other letter; It. certainly Isn't any more ornamental, and I can't see that in any respect It has an advan- tage over the rest of the alphabet. Yet the humen rare eticks to it with a fidel- ity worths of more Important Cal/ae. I'd like to llaVP anui\ w i;+.‘ wa n me why \ SOME NEW KNIGHTS. attractive Religion: \Is your religion alneorne ' liene ir charm and attract ' Doeis it enew ft self In a pleasant facet, a ehee t fie smile, gentle tones, courteone man- nere\ is It kindly and thoughtful for the comfort of others, willing te PPr glow to posh personal elairne, [lee k to aympethlze and help' (1r le it [eeir and hard. grim and frowning, 'ir'' niai' fed by petty gossip and Jealotleies asserting and domineering drkeng away more than It draws' Leek lute t ilia matter Carefully consider 1 h 1.‘ question See whether or not )[[ [ are Properly representing Christ ian FAMOUS MEN IN LITERATURE AND DRAMA JUST SWORDED. Sirs Henry Irving, Walter Besant and Lewis Morris stud Others ot Lesser Sole -- Lord Rusehery Acted as Ad- visor to the Queen. (Special Cerre.spendencee e VERYBODY re- marke at once that the recent list of what are called n England birth- day honere c o to - tains an unue- uel proportion of to a ru e s connected with literature and art. People say, \Thie is Lord Rose- beryee doing,\ and they are right It hi the Prime Minister who ultimately advises the Queen, ant his interest in literature and art is well known. He is a great reader, a student, a writer, and ever since he entered public life has cultivated social relations with men of letters and art. It was noticed when he gave his dinner to the Shah of Per. sia that Mr. Browning was one of his guests, and last year at the dinner in honor of the Queen's birthday Captain Mahan anti other distinguished writers were present, an innovatiett without SIR WALTER BES eNT. precedent. This year Sir John Millais, the eminent artist, and Sir William Broadbent, the eminent physician, were among the Prime Minister's guests. These are, if you choose, trivial inci- dents. In London they are not thought trivial. It requires perhaps more cour- age to take a new social departure than any other. Lord Rosebery has taken so many that no one was surprised when it became known that he had Induced the Queen to offer knighthoods to Mr. Walter Besant, Mr William M. Conway, Mr Lewis Morris, Dr. William Howard Russell. and Mr. Henry Using The word \Indueed\ is, I think, the right one to use The Queen is a wernan of much liberality of mind, her position considered, but her liberality has seldom led her toward literature, a word which itself is hard- ly broad enough to include the \Jour- nal of Our Life In the Highlands.\ Itut Lord Resebery, as you see from th , above list, has gone a step farther Ile has \Sought U - E honor not only lit- erature but journalism. It Is not nec- essary nor expedient to draw a bread line between those two departments of Intellectual effort. There are points at which they meet, and if they are not elways identical they are of kin to each pther. Dr. W. H. Russell is a journal- ist who has many of the graces of lit- erature, but he is, and always ham been, pre-eminently a journalist We in America know him as suete and as Ouch have done him some injustice, or, to say the least, misunderstood him It was his misfortune to be present at the Battle of Bull Run, and to describe It. We did hot like his deseriptien, and we dubbed him Bull Run Russell, and set him down as an enemy of America But only the other day I met a very die tinguished and patriotic American, wh told me that he wail at this battle, saw as much of it as one man could see. read Dr. Russell's account it it, and thought it a perfectly fair and accur- ate narrative. Any ene who will read it to -day, now that the fervent heats of those early dayse0f the civil year hay\ cooled, will see that it is inspired by ne spirit of animosity to the North. But what Dr.' Russell had to describe was a defeat, a rout, a panic, such as often besets raw troops. Ne nation likes ta • , ...... slit HP:NHY lit.IN , : have th, lime light turned •,t1 ''r' it a moment as thlt We hehead,,I rer Itutosoll, or. each, banished him and drove hint jer 111.11tIng hInsielf not \ cry long '‚(ter th , Inatru merit of popular vengeance. n e t then, end nee' (110 iria]' whom we det , stet1 fir ttlUng much truth at a crItl , s1 time was a friend hi this coun- try However. Ms g -‘sat fame had bee- wm before that In the Crimea. Tb' - Tinis, tearing Ile: I» that veil of linen- ymity through which the outside world is so !seldom allowed to peer, well says that Dr. Russell's services to literature, long and eminent as they have been, give no measure of his claims to pub - II» recognition and reward. It says of his services as special correspondent ot that journal in the Crimean war: \The faults and defects in our or- ganization, which he was mainly in- strumental in bringing before the pub- lic notice, would have passed unknown and unremedied but for the light which lie threw upon them. It was an invid- ious duty, entailing on its author no common obloquy and abuse, but cer- tainly entitling him to no common gratitude from the country which he ISO well served.\ Mr. Walter Besants claims are not exclusively literary. He is a novelist with a considerable publie, a volumi- nous and successful writer, but cer- tainly not the most conepicuous of liv- ing Engilsti novelists. \The Monks or Thelema\ may be, as his admirers say, his masterpiece, but is it a masterpiece? When we come to \All Sorts and Con- ditions of Men\ we approach the social side of Mr. Besant's literary work. Like DIckene, the seamy side of life has interested him; the problems ot poverty and of that inequality in the distribu- tion of wealth which has existed attics the earliest times. This is the book which is supposed to have laid the foun- dations of the People's Palace in White - chapel, in the East' End of London. When the palace was opened with much state and ceremony by the Queen. and when, toward the close of the exer- cises, Mr. Besant was summoned to the royal platform and presence, we all thought that he was to be knighted then and there. But the heavy sword of Sir Patrick Grant, hurriedly borrowed for the occasion by her Majesty, fell instead upon the shoulder ot some worthy Philistine whose name the world, if not his parish, has unhappily forgotten. The People's Palace, however, is one ot the great charitable foundations in which Lord Rosebery has shown his In- to the extent of some $20.000, and it may well be that he did not forget Mr. Besants contribution. An idea, some- times returns better interest than money, and sometimes brings money also. I do not know whether Mr. W. M. Conway's Is a name of renown In Ameri- ca. He has in England a very consid- erable fame as a mountaineer and as it writer upon mountaineering: some also as an art critic, though Mr. Ruskin seems long since to have monopolized nearly all the celebrity to be won In that field. His book on \Climbing In the Himalayas\ was widely read among a people who, like the English, have an insatiable appetite for stories of adven- ture. He has a book novrin the press en Alpine climbing, in which he will have the difficult task of surpassing. 1.11 he can, Mr. Whymper. He 18 Mr. Bee - ant's successor in the council of the So- ciety of Authors—a position which doei not so much imply supremacy in litera- ture as good business abilities and en- erge. And he is a liberal politielan try. ing to win his spurs in public life by capturing a conservative constituency. This last qualification for a knighthood avails much. Mr. Lewis Morris is on the list. That IS not a name, I Imagine, which signifies mu 'h in Arn , rica The author of \The MIR LEWIS MORRIS Epic of Hades - ham a certain reputation In England. little elsewhere. \From first to last, ' s the Saturday Review, \he has been temillar, because from the first he hats been censtant to his own mediocrity, a mediocrity ru - )re complete, complacent, and convineing than that of any other contemporary versifier.\ I always thought that Mr Lewis Morris owed his popularity In great mesasura to an °biter dietum of Nir Bright, who incidentally praised one ef his early poems tri a seeeeh A carelpsa word or two freroo M t Bright In th[ele daYe went for rum it. Because he was a great ereter and a great popular tribune sores nt Hs admirers assumed that he must be a good judge ef poetry. was hardly that. Wh , ther Mr Lewis Mor- ris has popularized poetry or not, he ham vulgarized It The name wba.11 attracts ro ,st atten- tion among the knights la Mr Henry Irving's At last an m't , r hag been knighted It he. 1-tig 1 ,,. `tt a'Vivant/IS hether the RC( pvor he arrom- ulloghed during 'fie preeent reign. The Queen Is a %Hader for pre,edent, anil there was no prer'etlent Si'\ has very. rigid notion. ['pen all matters relating t, her Court. She has re,elyerl Mr. Irv - Ina privately at Windsor, when he mind lila ,'ompany have acted before her, but he hap never been publicly presented. Now he noiet be In the mind of HIRT Majesty It la a RI eat Fee t ,. so also I n um mind Of the English public, which eetta such store l'y thee. privileges and dlie- tinr•ilona 11%1 ho mIndu of other people may find it tilintsult to tiomprehend. To knight the leading actor of the English «tea, Ia te elevate the whole profession Ito the aortal scale, (1 W. SMALLEY. A woman always thinks It takes alt, , sat two to keep a secret, ,45