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THE DILLON TRIBUNE, FRIDAY, DECEMBER 19, 1924. 'OCTMJTrR'ftt:. 1—Navigation being closed in the St. Lawrence from .Montreal to the sea, automatic gas buoys are hauled up for winter storage at Sorel, Quebec. 2—New parliament house of Turkish republic ut Angora. 3—Book-Cndillac hotel in Detroit, just opened, said to be the tallest hotel in world. * British Stand Checks the Funding of Debts to U. S. — Germany’s Elections. By EDWARD W. PICKARD ■^NEGOTIATIONS for the funding of war debts owed the United States tiy foreign nations may be cheeked en tirely by the position taken last week l>y Great Britain as represented by Winston Churchill, chancellor of the exchequer. Discussions between Sec retary of the Treasury Mellon and Am bassador Jusserand relative to fund ing the French debt aroused the fear in England that France would be granted more favorable terms than were given to Great Britain. Mr. Churchill, explaining his government’s position to the iiouse of commons, said Britain would Insist on equal treat ment with any other nation in this matter,and he added: \It is essential that any payment by our debtors In Europe to the United States should he Accompanied by a simultaneous and proportionate payment to us.\ Speaking for the Liberals, Sir John Simon called England's position \in tolerable\ and said: \Our allies owe us some £3,000.000,000, involving n yearly Interest on the délit of £130,- 000,000. We are paying our debt to America, but none of our allies dreams of paying us anything.” Washington officials declared positively that there was no reason to expect a reopening of the funding agreement with Great Britain, a request for an understand ing to that end having already been flatly refused. Another controversy arose when Austen Chnmherlaln, British foreign secretary, notified Secretary Hughes that, In the view of his govern ment, the United States was not entitled to collect war damage claims against Germany out of what the repa rations commission receives from Ger many through the Dawes plan. France. Italy and Belgium have agreed to sup port the American claim to the right to share In the reparations. Great Brit-, aln holds that America 1ms no such right nt all, having made a sep arate treaty \vith Germany. The point is made that t lie United States should follow the example of the allies by using the sequestered Ger man property within Us- borders to meet the claims of Its citi zens against Germany. Washington forwarded an answer to England which, while expressing the belief that the matter could be settled amicably, firmly rejected the British position and insisted on America's right to re ceive payment for war damages out of reparations funds. Unless the question Is settled previously, it will come up when the allied finance min isters meet In Paris next month to de cide upon the distribution of German payments. G ERMANY’S continued support of tlie Dawes plan was fairly well assured by the result of the reichstag elections. The thrèe republican par ties—Social Democrats, Catholics and Democrats— have 230 seats, which is just a few short of a majority. The three monarchist parties have 170 seats. The balance of power is thus held by hitherto weak groups, like the Bavarian Peoples’ find Peasants’ par ties. Doctor Demberg is quoted as saying the elections show that “a ma jority of the Germans are for the hon est carrying out of the pledges of the Dawes plan, and, moreover, for honest co-operation in the International affairs leading to peace and reconciliation. Germany at present Is negotiating for entry to the League of Nations and other International relations. The elections show that the people favor this program and oppose the extrem ists’ efforts to break It. \I believe a coalition of thé middle parties will result. The Democrats are ready to quit co-operating with the People’s party, which stands with the reactionaries. The jhree republican parties will be able, with the aid of two of the small parties, to form a republican government. Once this Is begun It is possible that the People’s party will be eager to join, because I he People’s party wants a place In the government, no matter what Us political complexion.\ For the present the People’s party lias refused to go into a coalition which would include the Socialists, so, according to dispatches from Berlin, the cabinet headed by Chan cellor Marx has decided to resign. The outcome may lie the formation of a bourgeois ministry to Include the Na tionalists, whose opponents wish to maneuver them into an Impossible situation. Baron Ago von Maltznn, secretary of state of tlie German foreign office, has been appointed ambassador to Washington to succeed Herr Wied- feldt, who has resigned. Baron Malt- y.an Is credited with possessing great diplomatic ability. He was chielty re sponsible for the treaty of Itapallo be tween Germany and Russia which caused such a sensation during the Genoa conference of the great pow ers. T HE League of f Nations council opened In Rome what might have been an Important meeting had it not been found necessary or advisable to yield to the demands of the British Austen Chamberlain told the council the Baldwin cabinet needed more time to examine the security and arbitra tion protocol and insisted that consid eration of it he postponed until March, which was agreed to. A delegation from Egypt urged that the council take cognizance of the protest of the Egyptian parliament against the re cent \wanton British attack,\ but here again British influence prevailed and the league secretariat announced It could not recognize the protest be cause It did not come from tlie Egyp tian government. Mr. Chamberlain had long conver sations with Premiers llerrlot and Mussolini, and afterward Intimated that great progress had been made to ward a complete accord of Great Brit ain, France and Italy on vital ques tions. Among other things, It was agreed that Britain should remain In the Rhineland, retiring from the Co logne bridgehead In January but oc cupying some other region, probably that of Coblenz which was held by the Americans after the armistice. They also , discussed tlie problem of North Africa, with what result is not known. F RANCE, as well as some other cen tral European countries, lias been making n campaign against tlie Reds within her borders because of their at tempts to incite revolution and mur der, and many of them have been ar rested and deported. Premier Iler- riot was subjected to hitter attacks for ids course, hut defended himself skillfully and won a vote of confidence of 300 to 20 in tlie chamber of depu-' ties. Over here in the United States the communists received a jolt when tlie Michigan Supreme court upheld tlie conviction of Charles E. Ruthenberg for violation of the state syndicalism law. It Is presumed that as a result W. Z. Foster, in whose case the jury disagreed, will be retried and that Ben jamin Gitlow, Rose Pastor Stokes and others who were Indicted will be brought to trial. M USCLE SHOALS was by agree ment the subject before the sen ate until disposed of, and It gave rise to some lively debates. Tlie Under wood bill was up for action, and de spite wsym opposition It appeared likely to pass. Senator McKellar of Tennessee declared it was drawn in the interest of the Alabama Power company and that Its terms would be even less favorable to the government than a bid made by that concern. The Republican steering committee of the senate agreed that controversial meas ures such as the worlu court member ship proposal and repeal of tlie Income tax publicity clause shall be omitted from the legislative program for the present session. The senate on Thursday passed tlie cruiser and battleship rehabilitation bili which tlie house passed last ses sion. It carries about $140,000,000 for construction and alteration and, al though there Is no provision for gun elevation, it will bring the navy almost up to the 5-5-3 ratio, according to Rep resentative Britten. The house was busy with the annual supply bills and quickly disposed of the appropriation measure for the In- -terior department, .which carries a to tal of $238,000,000. Western Repub iicnns and Southern Democrats pre vented tlie elimination of an amend ment for continuance of 39 land offices iit Western and Southern states. The agricultural appropriation bill was then taken up and seemed to meet witii little opposition in any of Its parts. Among its items is one of $S0,- 000,000 for road construction. O UUPLEMENTIN’G the gloomy re- ^ ports of tlie secretaries of war and tlie navy is the annual report of tlio advisory committee for aeronautics which President Coolldge transmitted to congress. It gives s startling pic ture of what might happen to this country in time of wai because of our deficiency in aircraft. Here Is an ex tract : \No one enn foretell nt this time what the use of aircraft will be In future wars, not even In the next war. It Is safe to say that there will be in dividual and group lighting In the air; lhere will be aircraft attacking troops on the ground both with bombs dropped from great heights and with machine guns mounted on low-ll.vlng aircraft protected by armor from ordi nary rille bullets; there will he bomb ing of large centers, and routes of communication and transportation. \And it has been proposed that nlr- ■rnft be used to drop poisonous gases, not only on the enemy troops, but also behind tlie lines and In the cen ters of population, to the same extent that long-distance homldng will he car ried on. ’The homhs carried may not he limited to.explosives and poisonous gases, but may possibly he loaded with germs to spread disease und pesti lence. \Without limitations on the uses of aircraft in warfare, a r .tion lighting with Its back to the wall cannot be ex pected to omit to use desperate means to stave off defeat.\ T WO Immense gifts to the American public for educational and chari table purposes were announced last week. James B. Duke, tobacco and power magnate, created a trust fund embracing properties worth at least $10,000,000, to be Increased later to $80,000,000, for education, church nn(\ hospital work In North and South Carolina. The trustees are Instructed to spend part of this In creating a uni versity to be known as Duke univer sity, provided Trinity college nt Dur ham will not consent to change Its name to Duke, which it probably will not do. The other benefactor Is George East man, head of the Eastman Kodak com pany of Rochester, N. Y. He an nounces new gifts of $12,500,000 to Massachusetts Institute of Technology, University of Rochester, Hampton In stitute and Tuskegee Institute. This brings Mr. Eastman’s known benefac tions up t' $58.002,900, of which near ly $24,000,000 has been given to the University of Rochester. Explaining tlie donations of $1,000,000 each to Hampton and Tuskegee, he says: \Almost the es*4re attention of edu cators has been devoted thus far to the white race, hut we have more than 10 per cent negro population in the United States, most of whom are densely lgnornnt. The only hope of the negro race and the settlement of the negro problem Is through proper education of the Hampton-Tuskegee type.” S AMUEL GOMPERS, who went to Mexico City for the Pan-American Federation of Labor convention and was elected Its president, was taken seriously ill there and was placed on a train and hurried homeward. At the time this was written there was small hope for his recovery. He had been in very poor health for some time, and it was believed tlie altitude of Mexico City affected his heart. August Belmont, known throughout the world as a financier and a sports man, died rather suddenly in his New York residence at the age of seventy- one years. Mr. Belmont financed the first New York subway and was the chief figure In the building of the Cape Cod canal. For a great many years he was one of the leaders in American thoroughbred racing. Another notable man who passed away during the week was Mahlon Pit ney, former associate justice of the United States Supreme court. About eighteen months ago he was forced to retire by two strokes of paralysis, and be never recovered from them. VENERABLE LABOR LEADER DIES WITHIN FEW HOURS OF RETURN TO U. S. LHtflB-HEM HR 40 TEARS History Will Find a Distinguished Place For Accomplishments of Labor's Champion Sen Antonio, Texas.—Samuel Com pels, ulm for more than 4(1 years dmvie.i (he deslinies of (lie American Fedcraiion of Labor, died last Satur day a tier realizing his last hope—that the end came on American soil. The bibor chiefiaiu died surrounded by his comrades, many of whom had fought beside him shoulder to shoulder for a generation in behalf of the economic principles he expounded. The mid came in a San Antonio hotel 11 hours after his arrival from Mexico City where he had been stricken earlier requests to board thé train at points on the route nearest their homes so that tlie full council may escort the fallen president to his home in Washington. Services were held In Washington and the body taken to New Y o r k Wednesday morning, where further services were held. Burial was in Sleepy Hollow cemetery at Tarrytown, New York. SAMUEL GOMPERS it I ho week. Ills last words were rpoken to his nurse about an hour before he died. Realizing that lie was using the battle so stubbornly fought, he turned to her and whispered: 'Nurse, this the cud. God bless our American institutions. May they grow heller day by bay.” Shortly before lie lapsed Into the un- oiisciousticss which presaged I lie cud, Mr. Gompers gave a few simple di- cctions for his funeral and hade a few life-long friends farewell. Saturday night the body of (he labor liicl'taiii, sleeping in a massive bronze askel sindlinr to Unit In which Presi- ent I larding was laid to rest, was tarled on its long Journey to the un ion's capital, accompanied by his friends and associates. There were no services ill the mortuary where the body reposed Sal unlay. The government, whose hands ho had uphold In peace and In war, step ped In to claim the body for the whole American people and through the Unit ed Stales army, Ihe American people officially took hack their dead, ills ist words were: \God Idcss our Amer ican itistiitulions,\ and one of those in- lituUons, the United Stales army— claimed that he belonged to them ns much as to anybody. Soldiers from ort Sam Houston were assigned to he escort. Not only labor possessed him, they said, hut the country also. Sleeping in his great bronze casket n a flag-draped house of death, the lie president of the American Feder ation of Labor, drew to himself throughout the day tin* men of labor and the men of capital, those who work In field and factory, those who knew him only as a name and (hose who knew him ns a loved and loving com panion. All filed past the massive cof fin, which was flanked by hanks of flowers, and draped with the Ameri can flag. As tli(> hour approached for the start of the cortege lo the Mis souri, Kansas & Texas Railroad sta tion, streets along the lino of march were roped off. while the city, which ert“ this has seen the tramp of many feet, passed in its fretful rush to ding for a suspended moment viewing his tory. The city was reluctant to let him go. The cosmopolitan metropolis of the Alamo, with its soldiers. Its sojourners, from all states and Its adopted sons from the land below the border, ceased theix Saturday night diversions to give a many-voicerl,, adieu to the gallant gentleman who could not prolong his slay though he wished it mightily. Members of the executive council of the federation were sent telegraphic Gompers’ Career History will find a distinguished place for the life and ■accomplishments of Samuel Gompers. His name will he writ ten beside those of men who giud- ed the nation through its latter day (rials and eventually, sacrificing them selves on the altar of patriotism, brought it safely past the breakers of war, industrial strife and general un rest which threatened time and again to bring disaster upon it. The recognized leader of organized labor in the United States, a diplomat of world-wide reputation and a writer of marked ability, Samuel Gompers took ¡1 powerful part in bringing the war with Germany and Austria-llun- gary to a successful conclusion. From (he minute he became leader o f ‘organ ized labor in America Gompers had to fight, lie was fighting day and night for I lie Ideals lie and Ids followers thought worth dying for, and this early Induing stood him in good stead when ho was pul to the real test in 1917, the year America declared war. Born in England <>n January 27,1850, a son of Samuel ami Sarah Gompers, he received his early education In the British Isles, hut came to America when still a boy. At -the ago of 15, \'lien most boys of today are just com pleting their first schooling and plity- -ing marbles, Samuel Gompers embark ed on Ills stormy career as n labor lead er. Me was then a cigar maker, work ing for a weekly wage, that today would scarcely keep a man alive 48 hours. From the minute Gompers realized the plight of Ids fellow workers and decided to try to correct tliclr misfor tunes he had to battle against a foe that was prepared am] waiting for tlie ordeal It knew must sooner or later come. But the youthful organizer worked so steadily for Ihe success of tlie movement to organize American working men and .Incorporate them in one great powerful association that lie soon became recognized as Ihe real leader of labor in this country. Jlo was one of the charter organizers of the American Federation of Labor, and became Its president In 1882, which position he held until the day of ills death, with the exception of one yeat, 1894, when John McBride of the min ers’ union defeated him. Gompers’ battle on behalf of the worker did not end with his duties ns president of the American Federiitlon of Lnhor, nrduous though tlicve were. He was editor of the federation's offi cial organ,^the Federntlonist, and he waged his fight so hard in the columns of this magazine that he eventually be came Involved In trouble with the United States supreme court, arising from his criticism of (ho injunction granted in the famous Buck Stove and Range case. When Germany had been crushed and the peace congress was called lo mod In Paris, Samuel Gompers, the former cignrmalcer, was sent over to take care of American laboring men's interests. What he accomplished there and at the international labor congress held In Amsterdam some weeks later, cannot he judged nt this time. Poster ity niust render the verdict after his ideals have been given a fair trial. Gompers, however, virunlly domina ted the labor conference and was re sponsible for the rejection of a plan which would have given unimportant little nations with total populations of less than 200,000 equal voting power with such nations as Great Britain and the United Slates, which represent mil lions of workers. Under Ihe Gompers plan the voting power of (he nations was regulated according to ihe popula tions of (lie various governments con cerned. Gompers returned home covered with honors. He was a passenger on the transport George Washington, the same vessel that carried President Wil son to and from the peace conference. At the annual session of the Ameri can Federation of Labor at El Paso, Texas, In November, 1524, Mr. Gom pers was elected president for the for ty-third time. That .session was fol lowed by a Joint meeting of the Ameri can Federation of Labor and the Mexi can Federation of Lnhor, sessions of the Pan-American Federation of Labor amt the Inauguration of President Dalles of Mexico, which officials of all federations attended at Mexico City. In Mexico City Mr. Gompers was the victim of recurrence of an ailment which has kept him more or less an Invalid for some years. Complicated by a slight cold and aggravated by the high altitude, the aged labor leader was unable to attend the dosing cere monies of the Inauguration. Gompers was the personal friend oi six American presidents—McKinley. Roosevelt, Taft, Wilson, Harding nnd Coolldge. State Capital N E W S 0 Gompers' Burial Place Tarrytown. N. Y.—Samuel Gompers, who for nearly a half century led the labor ranks of the country, will be buried near the graves of some of the wealthiest and most prominent men of America. The Gompers’ plot In Sleepy Hollow here is within 200 feet of the grave of Andrew Carnegie and about the same distance from the mausoleum of W il liam Rockefeller. Nearby are the graves of John D. Archhold, once presi dent of the Standard Oil company, and Ourl Schurz. Chandlers Bury Hatchet Atlanta.—Asa G. Chandler, capital ist of Atlanta and founder of the Coca Cola company, and his wife, f r o m whom he has been estranged for sev eral months, Dec. 11 were beginning thoir domestic relations anew, follow ing n reconciliation effected Wednes day night, a story published In the Atlanta Constitution said. Mr. Chandler and his wife separated, following her arrest several months ago. with two Atlanta men, following a raid on an apartment house here. She has been living with her parents. COMMISSION DENIES ROUNDUP MAN PERMIT Two applications to operate motor vehicles in public service were denied by the Montana railroad commission in orders ssued Dec. 9. An application by Matt Kuehan for permission’ lo operate between Round up to Mine No. 4, and several inter mediate points was denied nnd he was ordered to stop operation of any public carrier service outride the town of Roundup., An application from E. II. Blanken- Inirg to operate a public carrier be tween Glendive and Fairview was re fused hut a certificate for license granted to .1. A. Blunkenburg over the same territory was confirmed, with the umlersianding that he furnish ade quate and satisfactory service and ob serve closely tlie commission's regula tions. ★ ★ ★ OFFICIALLY PROCLAIMS NEW LAWS IN EFFECT The three measures adopted by tlio people of Montana at the election Nov ember 4, became laws Dec. 9 when Governor Dixon officially proclaimed that llii1 measures had received majori ties as certified to him by tlie state canvassing hoard. The nmustires arc: Metal mines tax, a constitutional amendment defining qualifications for county .superintend ents, and an act permitting the state to accept gifts for its institutions. ’ Tlie repeal of the presidential pre ference primary law also becomes ef fective. Tlie fiftli mensure voted on, the sol dier bonus, was defeated. ■A ★ ★ SEEKS TO IMPROVE CARBONATED DRINKS Efforts directed toward the raising of (lie standard of soft drinks manu factured In Mont ana are being made by G. I). Wiles as director of the divi sion of food nnd drugs of the state hoard of health. Mr. Wiles has just re lumed from eastern Montana where lie gathered samples of carbonated drinks, also bringing in samples of other man ufactured products. Purity of con tents nnd proper labeling tiro factors of first Importance in the state’s super vision of carbonated drinks. ★ ★ ★ CONVICTION OF BUTTE DRUGGIST IS UPHELD Conviction In Ilutte of Charles Fin- Icy, a druggist charged with having sold morphine without a doctor’s pre scription, Is upheld In a decision of the state supreme court written by Dis trict Judge Frank Ik Loipe of Glendive, silling In place of Associate Justice Albert B. Galen, who Is III. Tlie opin ion was delivered Dec. 8. Ten assign ments of error were cited In the ap peal. ★ ★ ★ 80,000 AUTOMOBILE LICENSE PLATES FOR 1925 By January 10 tlie state will receive shout 80,000 automobile license plates for 1925, fl is announced by Charles T. Stewart, secretary of state. The Issu ing of licenses will begin Ihe first of Ihe year. Next year’s plates will have a red background nnd white numlvers. This year's purchase for the next season represents a little more thnn 7 per cent Increase over the number of licenses used In 1924. ★ ★ ★ WARNED TO KEEP CANDY CLEAN Candy offered for sale must be kept clean and must not he on open display, Is (lie warning sent out b.V the slate hoard of health with the plan especial ly of protecting t h e public against Christmas candy which is not sanitari ly kept. Candy or other confections kept In open barrels or boxes where people can handle it Is dangerous to health, the board believes. ★ ★ ★ MAN PAID $1,239 FOR LOSS OF EYE C. C. Peterson, who In the employ of tlie Montana Central Elevator com pany at Harrison, October 19, 1923, got a wheat heard In his right eye, losing the sight of the eye, lias been awarded a lump sum settlement of $1,239 by the state Industrial accident hoard. The insurance is carried by the Hart ford Accident nnd Indemnity company. ★ * ★ NAMES COMMISSION TO ADJUST COUNTY DEBTS Governor Dixon hns appointed the following men as members of the com mission to adjust the debts of Fergus and Petroleum counties, as provided by statute: John A. Wilson, Stanford; J. Otis Mudd, Wlnnett; E. K. Chendle. Jr. It is probable that the first meet ing will he held at Wlnnett In about: ten days. ★ ★ ★ MRS. COtT APPOINTED BY GOVERNOR DIXON Governor Dixon hns appointed Mrs. Eleanor Coit of Big Timber a member • of the executive board of the state vocational school for girls. She will fill out the unexpired term of Mrs. Lora O. Edmunds of Absorkee, who has left the state, and her term will, expire April 21, 1925. ★ ★ ★ FIVE CANDIDATES ADMITTED TO BAR Five candidates who have Just taken the state bar examination at the cap- itol have been admitted to practice law in the courts of Montana. They are; John W. Kelly, Butte; Marcus O’Farrell, Butte; Floren M. Hammon, Savage; Bennet H. Smith, Billings; Louis M. Dyll, Helena.