The Columbian (Columbia Falls, Mont.) 1891-1897, October 22, 1891, Image 1

What is this?
Optical character recognition (OCR) is an automated process that converts a digital image containing numbers and letters into computer-readable numbers and letters. The search engine used on this web site searches OCR-generated text for the word or phrase you are looking for. Please note that OCR is not 100 percent accurate. If the original image is blurry, has extraneous marks, or contains ornate font styles or very small text, the OCR process will produce nonsense characters, extraneous spaces, and other errors, such as those you may see on this page. In addition, the OCR process cannot interpret images and may ignore them or render them as strings of nonsense characters. Despite these drawbacks, OCR remains a powerful tool for making newspaper pages accessible by searching.
×

( r1111111111.1!\.111111111[ 4•• /Allir\ -- UNDERMINE BUTTE, 'Ihe Site of the Smoky 4 it, to be Tunneled in a Search for Precious Metals. The Varioue Other Towns of the State Furnish In Bits of News. One of the most important mining enterprises that has ever been origi- nated in the west is . now under way in Butte, and from present indica- tions, says the Miner, it is likely to be brought to a successful termina- tion. The enterprise is nothing more nor less than the exploration on an extensive scale of the various mineral veins that underlie the city. The idea of mining the ore bodies of Butte in the manner to be described first originated with W. J. ,Hutchins, an old California. Nevada and Mon- tana miller. about a year ago, when the gentleman, with a partner, bonded several claims just east of Main street and announced his intention of sink- ing a shaft to a depth of 500 feet be- low the city and then driving a (goss- cut 2,600 feet north to intersect the numerous veins running parallel with each other east and we ,t. For various reasons, the principal one of which was a desire of the partner to take in a third party who would put up his (the partner's) por- tion of the cash, which was objected to by Mr. Hutchins, the scheme fell through. A short time ago it was taken up by E. II. Irvine and W. H. Young, of the real estate firm of Irvine, Young a; Co. These gentle- men, after correspondence with east- ern capitalists from whom they re- eeived substztntial encouragement, mit S1 N EY . LO GA IN, marriiel .11e 'ere l'himintut the - people's party or r- z:a! de , \trelitity of the ground Itunded. The t uw , i no:lacing Sirlpsoa in intl..' aszenalr ,l ' atielrusa an ' rhee, ee•I wlaeh will in all hii lm C.:P.11 1 .1 . 1t1110Z: end I:. !!:!:.! '0: ditridea hi.; lorer; ); ,•:, emi , U. S. COMMISSIONER. THE C LivILHAN. COLUMBIA FALLS, MONTANA, THURSDAY, OCTOBER 22, 1891. BEFORE THE MAST. Chilians Attack Sailors from the American Cruiser Baltimore --Mrs. Thurman Dead. tteneral Miles Reports on the Indian Question—Grand World's Fair Tower—Sorkless Jerry. A dispatch of the 17th from Santi- ago says: The anti-American feel- ing, which is very pronounced, reached a climax in the streets of Valparaiso. A number of sailors from the United States Steamship Baltimore were walking along the street when they were confronted by some sailors of a Chilian man-of-war. . Some words passed, when a fierce fight followed. Knives and pistols were freely used during the squabble. When the combatants were separated by the police and bystanders it was found that four of the Baltimore's sailors were killed and five others seriously wounded. Several Chilian sailors were also badly hurt. This was the first time the Baltimore's sailors had been ashore for a month. The in- tendente of the city had assured Captain Schley that his sailors would be perfectly safe on Chilian soil. The feeling between Americans and Chili- aus is very strong. Several additional fights occurred to -day among sailors, but they were not as serious as yes- terday's battle. The dead sailors of the Baltimore will be buried to -mor- row. An armed force will be landed from the Baltimore to furnish a mili tary guard. MN. Allen 0. Thurman died on the 17th at (\ohm& ts, 0. For three days she had been in tel unconscious con- dition. She was a victim of grippe during the winter end never recover- . .. 11Ates.,..,.M...•...,,,,,................N.,,,,,. i You WILL KNOW THE NEWS AND PROGRESS ) OF THE FLATHEAD RE- 5 GION IF YOU READ THE COLUMBIAN REGULAR- , L LY- SUBSCRIBE NOW. ....-....,,,,,...,...,,,,,,,,,,,....,...........,..) FIRST YEAR. BANK COLUMBIA FALLS. Columbia Falls, Mont. DIRECTORS: A. J. Davis, : : Butte, Mt. James A. Talbott, ; Butte, Mt. J. E. Gaylord, : : Butte, Mt. L. C. Trent. : Salt Lake. S. T. Hauser, : : Helena, Mt. Exchange Drawn on Principal Cities of the United States and Europe. A General Banking Business Trans- acted. Win. MAT), ( 'ash it.r. EDWIN SINGLETON. Contractor, AND Builder. Will Contract and Execute Every Class of Buildings. Contracts taken for Excavations, and for the Construction of All Classes of Buildings. Columbia DB. J03. 7r, it int ana. PIED LUE, PHYSICIAN AND KiRGEON. Office Conlin -Miller illocle Colurntaiea. Yeariss. h.er rent. actual cost of the tower is estimated at $1,500,000, 4, '?0),000 less than the Eiffel tower, the difference being in the greater simplicity in design and the use of standard and merchanta- ble sizes of steel. There are to be three landings, the first, 200 feet from the ground, will accommodate at one time on the colonnade four or five thousand people. Inside the colon- nade is a space sufficient to build four hotels or restaurants, besides numer- ous booths for the sale of different articles. The second landing is de- signed as a grand promenade in the daytime and a dancing hall in the evening, and will accommodate 5,000 people. The upper landing is 1,000 feet from the groand and will aecom- 'imitate from twelve to fifteen hun- dred people, and above this there will be offices for the signal service, scien- tific investigation, etc. Above this is to be a circular electric railway carry- ing eleetric lights at night and signals by day. Above this will be a light- house to iw provided with the most powerful reflector ever constructed, surmounted by a flag staff. Congressman Jerry Simpson, says a Cleveland dispatch, came here last Saturday and talked to about three hundred people in the public square. Ho scored the millio-aires and mon- opolists unmercifully and said ugly things about everybody who had ac- cumulated money. When he had concluded his speech Congressman Toni Johnson, a rich democrat, car- ried Simpson off to the cafe, where they sat down with L. A. Russell and S. D. Dodge, both democratic lawyers and wealthy 111(41, to a champagne supper. When the people's party committee heard of the wine supper they were angry. They went to the restaurant and upbraided him then and there for his conduct. One of the committeemen told him that if he bonded the Gold Hill No. 1, the lied no respeel for himself he ought, . Smoke House, on which the business ed. Her mh, er , prevented her portion of Butte rests; the Destroy - at least to Lye resplaa for his party. gaining st retie!: it. airs. Thurman WaS in Aligel, Clara, LW Jay, Yellow it to pay him for his born ie Chileeothe in IS.1./. and her Jack, Railroad and Nellie claims, all speech or pay his expenses. Simpson =Me,: aanto vats Mary Dalin. While of which lie in the patl. of the course got veld he did not want their she ve1- e!::!•I her father moved to ' ' the throe mammoth Lw*i,:. , n. , rri„, , money awl would do the teune thing \ , ( r ) ,, l .. 7 ;-( t , ' - t i ' i l t ` s °1 f I ro i ll ' 3 ; a shaft at the lower ------- again if he too!: a noticeu to do it. Ail r. . 1,2 di in a few public care •' .1 ; Tlea.anan i 0,1 cJiapice•d much eutfee'ei • 1. eie I it is fe tt p.al 1- not le- • t Lean t)rrica BrSINESS ATl'ENDT:ll To. islet:de h.. e 'el no long rurvive :.! , OFFIi : Sullican : , T.,A;w.irs KALISPELL. MONTANA. tioneral Milee, hi- eee-el rope recount:can's that the national gua!!!! I be mobilized or assenili!el at i. World's Columbian expoeit ion in 1.-e •• and tied congress be requested to make an appropriation to pay the cost of transportation. General Miles reviews at length the Indian outbreak of last winter, attributing it largely, as he (lid at the time, to the failure of crops and the failure of the gov- ernment to properly perform its obli- gations in regard to rations, etc. Of the messiah craze he says the fanati- cism and superstition of the people were taken advantage of by the lead- ers to encourage them to hostilities. He commends the administration of Captain Penney as acting agent at Pine Ridge and says that through additional appropriations the Indians now receive nearly half as much more than they (lid a year ago. How- ever, the fires of discord still remain. Commanders have discovered that communications are going on between different camps, inciting Indians to hostility, and even now a delegation from the Indian territory is absent ostensibly to visit friends in Wyom- ing. They have in fact gone across the mountains and are now in the abodes of the supporters of the mee- siah delusion near Pyramid lake, in Nevada. Even while the hostages were held at Fort Sheridan last spring they received a communication from a friend in the Sioux camps saying they had not given up the idea of a grand Indian Uprising and that the Utes were ready to join the Sioux whenever the latter were ready to re- sume hostilities. D.F. lz. L. SMITH & OLIVER, REAL 01,. vete L-1 Q Fr. ytm 3 and Insurance Agents. co,,.., FALLS, MONT. _1. K. Miller, LAW AND REAL ESTATE. OFFICE: NUCLEUS AVENUE. Columbia Falls, : Montana. R. L. CLINTON, Attorney at Law. LAND AND MININ(I PRACTICE SPECULTY. ONE DOOR EAST POSTOFFICE. Demers -11111e, : Montana.. O. J. Blodgett, A_ 1\17 0 11,NiKY. Fire and Life Insurnce Written. RANCHES BOUGHT AND SOLD. COLUMBIA FALLS, MONT. A. Y. LINDSEY, LAW AND REAL ESTATE. OFFICE IN P. 0. BUILDING. To811,4, i1.intrnini. Iirdogfori & Law, Real Estate and Fire Insurance. wife. The stars and stripes, it is decided, are to wave 1,120 feet above the ground during the World's fair from an American tower that will outdo the Eiffel at Paris. The builder is to be Andrew Carnegie, of Pittsburg. Over 25,000 people will be accommo- dated in the tower at one time, and two of the many elevators are to start from the ground and run more than 1,000 feet up without change or stop directly to the lookout lauding. The width of the tower at the foun- dation level is 440 feet in each direc- tion. The Keystone Bridge company, of Pittsburg, one of Carnegie's con- cerns, has agreed to con truct the metal portion of the tower and have ij completed February 1. 1S93. The ...aril. The I') a !a o n o! ! aapitited, but so ir.te • i Porter was able i!) !oate :!. !, av farm and hum. , debt fne partial returns from counties di- tributed throughout the union i\-i; .2 - for farms and 9h5 for home, Ii the:io averages hold good for tlw United States, there is an existing ed with fatal effect. It is not known whether he iutended to commit sui- cide or not, but it is surmised that he did as he had been drinking and had, so it is stated, recently lot heavily at gambling. Mrs. Ann M. Dodge, an inmate of the Butte poor house, aunt SO years of age, has received news that she is the sole heir to an estate worth i:S,000,- 000 in England. Deeney, Hickey and Kelly, the three men charged with the murder of W. J. Penrose, were admitted to bail by Judge Pemberton in the sum of $10,000 each. J. M. Spencer, a well known and highly respected engineer, died at Black Pine. He was chief engineer of the Combination company. John Haley, who had been on a protracted spree at Chotezna was found dead in a cabin on Dennis Collins' ranch. Hugh Boyle, a laborer in a section gang at Helena, sustained fatal in- juries from {Aug crushed under tlw wheels of a freight car in the Mon- tana Central yards. Patrick Adams and Thos. Stewart, miners employed by a coal company at Rea Lodge, were instzuitly killed by a fall of rock. Dnniel MeElhenry, a Philipsburg miner in the employ of the Maria Mining company, while coming up for supper suddenly became dizzy and fell 300 feet, killing him in- stantly. Andrew Olson, said to be a Butte horse thief, was captured at Great Falls and lodged in jail. The brother policemen of Officer Grogan, who was shot by a highway- man at Helena, have hit upon a novel scheme to add to the drawing quali- ties of his benefit which will be held on October 25. It is propoeed to have Clark, the high:\ ayman, and his partner, Berth) Miller, e7:11111:i(.t1 on the stage during the la , rformance. The general merehandise sti3r0 or Main & Moran, at Yantie, was com- pletely destroyed by fire, caused by a defective flue. The loss was insurance. :4,(X)0. Ground has been broken on the Boulder smelter, winch promises to be one of the largaa establishments of the kind in the state. CU :ZrIE.: of c(!:!el'i) . !'''t in a short time. Boulder have donated about $10,10t . t!! e•ni' aoali)!iilmentsi 1 . 0 (X-) for the promotion of the enterprise, (10;)!' •1. ,t ii of AO feet and the anaJ.ter tannpany is expected a cr! , eel 1;:i be started north, but t o i nves t a t l ea a ao r toassa w ith eon - etetiine .;inking will be con - o 010600 and then to the 1,(X(), esei of which a cross-cut will e'en. Electric motors will be a eaell cross -cut. Levels will .,•am east and west on the ore end the on. hoisted to the !qtr- .! '(iii. na l an enterprise will pay hami ..ely there is 1101 now nor has then , been any doubt in the debt in force of n2n00,000,000 on tininds ef the mining men of the community who understand the for - farms and homes ovettpital by °WIWI'S and incumbents. It has cost nearly 'nation of the ground and are cog - a million dollars thus far to collect, nizant of the ore bodies that must. be encountered in extending the cross -cuts. South, north, east west and, in fact all through the city dif- ferent veins of pay ore have been found and are now being reinuuera- lively worked. lit excavating for the foundation of the site on which the State Savings bank is now located a thirty -four -foot ledge of silver -bear- ing ore that averaged 35 to 50 ounces per ton in silver was discovered, and for a time the owners of the ground thought seriously of abinehming the building project for that of mining. About 100 feet north of the savings bank another large vein was discov- ered by workmen_ engaged in exca- that vating for the M. & M. building, samples of which assayed from 22 to 130 ounces per ton in silver. This is merely an illustration of the Close- ness, size and richness of the ore . bodies that the cross -cuts from the proposed shaft must pass through. It is estimated that there are at least twelve of these veins between the point where the shaft is to be sunk and the north line of the property, and the men who are figuring on tapping them in the manner stated will not only be benefitting thous- ands by so doing, but will also be demonstrating that the ore bodies of Butte are more numerous, more pro- ductive and more lasting than those of any other mining camp on the face of the earth. these statistics of mortgage indebted- ness and will take another half mill- ion to finish it. .1. E. Lewis Married. Thursday last John E. Lewis and Miss Olive Senn= were married at Missoula, Judge Logan performing the ceremony. Miss Sellman recent- ly arrived from Iowa. Mr. Lewis is a well known eitiztei of Columbia Falls and one of its pioneers. Mr. and Mrs. John E. Lewis ar- rived home Saturday evening, and were the recipients of many hearty congratulations. The boys turned out and made their welcome rather Uproarious by the revival of ancient barbarism known as the charivari, but the weleozne was thor- oughly understood and taken in the cordial spirit in whieh it was tendered. Friday evening a reception was tendered Mr. and Mrs. Lewis at the Columbia hotel. All the young peo- ple turned out and a most enjoyable time was the result. The dining room was thrown open and to splen- did music the dancing was kept up till midnight. Mrs. Lewis was most heartily welcomed to her new home. Ed Bryant's place was formally opened on Thursday night, and is al- ready one of the most popular re- sorts in the city. The genial Ed has many friends who are glad to see him in business agaite Mr. Bryant rented the Louis Johnson building, and has fixed it tip thoroughly, mak- ing it first-class in all respects. \Ed's Place\ will no doubt become as pop- ular as its owner. Homestead and pre-emption filings, also proofs made on the same. A. W. SWANEY, Connnissioner U. S. Court. Colinnbia John Miller, a Helena teamster, was shot by a drunken special policeman. The officer's name is Mike Dooney and he is locked ny in the county jail, while his victim is lying in St. Peter's hospital with a bullet some- where in his head, although it is thought that the wound will not prove fatal. Pat Sennett. it well known infning a man of Marysville, shot himself' in the bewele with a shot gun it is fear injury to several other passengers, occurred on the Chicago & Eaetern Illinois railroad, at Crete, Ill. The dead are: Leonaze I Washburn, sport- ing reporter; Fred W. Henry. reporter; J. A. McCafferty, artist, neerntly from St. Louis; James Clark, engineer. Forty smallpox cases are reported at Montreal, and a recurrence of the epidemic of 1885 is feared. At San Franvisco. Maurice B. Stroll- officials. They resolved that foreign-, ti inger (Samuel of Posen) was held to answer on the charge of murdering BUSINESS MEN WILL FIND THE COLUMBIAN'S i JOB PRINTING OFFICE EQUIPPED FOR GOOD WORK. N CW STYLES OF TYPE. • NUMBER 27. RIOTS AT ICHANCi. Ameriven Epigepal (el by a Howling er the Natives. Sisters of the Catholic Convent Thrown Into the River-- Chihlrea Burned. A dispatch from Hon Kow, China, tolls the following story: The steam- er Paohua arrived here with 'cluing refugees, twenty in all. They had lost everything except the clothes they wore at the beginning of the out- break. Several bore marks of vio- lence. The riot took place at broad noonday without warning or provoca- tion. It was carried out by a hand- ful of men c•vidently acting under orders in the presence of a number of Chinese officials who knew every one of the rioters. Their mission of destruction was carried out with the utmost speed. A crowd had collected, and suddenly a rush was made for a home. belong- ing to the American Episcopal Mis- sion. The gate was smashed. in. and a man heading the crowd cried, \Slay the foreigners.\ The rioters came ill with a rush, and ono aimed a murder- ous blow with a shackle at Mr. Sower - by. Mr. Sowerby disarmed this as- sailant, avoided another and ran for his life, reaching the consulate, front where he Wati transferred to the Pao - hut. The American Mission house was set on fire, and the Yamen and soldiers fell back, neither civil nor military mandarins making an effort to proteet the property. The Boman Catholic convent was next fired and the Sisters, seven in number, barely escaped to the river, where they were thrown headlong down the sleep bank by t!oldiers. They were 1,11:en in a boat on board the Paohua, and WOre stoned by the mob on shore. Several Sisters were badly injured by the missiles. It is thought a number of children in the convent were letrinal to death, A mob armed with knivoa and axes rushed to the consulate, butt did not attack it. The house in whi c h w e re Dr. Pirie and Rev. Mr. Deane, to- gether \vith overal other buildings, were burned. Mr. Rocklunrn's house was ruined and the new Briu ish con- sulate, in tatur: , .i of construetion, was torn done!. flouses were looted, and, although Imo one was 1,illed, several attempts were made to murder and threats were frequent. At filo old consutlate the fore:gners hept the rioters back witlt bayonets. The leaders of the mob carried . gun pow- der and kerosene, with which to fire: the buildings. Those having stolen pr the ruined kuildings next day, lett no attenae to capture the real intrtid of the rioters were soldiers V. Ito lua.1 taken off t heir coats to disgui,re t hein- ens must be driven immediately from A, central provinces. The missions tinual enlargement of the pie au as businees domande it. WORLD oVEll. The Dv: - er entl)les this tseleon won 1$1.75.000, the higheet of any etable winnings. R. G. Dun & Co.'s Weeran of Trade says that from all parts of the west and south come advice.; that business is gradually improving.. Jimmy Carroll, the lightweight, who is matched to fight Billy Myer in New Orleans next month, has gone to die scene of the coming battle. A great storm has flooded the low - of an order evidently come to his lIunan soldiers to deetroy all foreign property . they C011111 ()II Ii :tt day. Where no gunboat can go the posi- tion of foreigner:4, unies:-; jIm wunbers IS very insecure. When It I get orders .from their secret leeders they care nothing. for their otlic,•]. e and the central govertnn , •iit There will ixo no f;; !(),•;•ign life or property in i!!! the rebellious secret flunaeao are sup- pressed by force. The Createst Vet. While uo person familiar with the North Fork coal ever doubted that it was the best zeiicle yet found in Mon- tana, but the must sanguine oliservers hardly expected it would turn out as well as recent tests prove. The sample of coal taken to Butte by Mr. Gaylord from the 13 -foot vein of the Flathead Coal & troll compan3 showed the fineet assay ever found in western coal. viz: Fixed carbon 50..1 per cent.; volatile matter 38.2 per cent.; ash 3.0 per cent.: moisture 7.5 per cent. If you wish to make preemption Ill - Mg. homestead filing, give notice of final proof, or make your final proofs, go to Langford & Moor. T J I 1. 149ll's Furilisliiu Boots and Shoes. Hats and Caps, Pants and Shirts, Gloves and Ties, Overalls and Jumpers, Socks Et, Suspenders Fine Underwear. llr DopftEllt. Stoves and Tiny/are, Nails, Bolts, Screw, Locks, Hinges, Hasps. Rifles and ShotgunS, Big Line of Crosscut Saws, Carpenters' Toc.11s, Wire Screens, Spring - A1s9 R MILLE LI' - :4 • ts' rat t, • r, 1 p st c , ' (1- 31 wou;. - 1 11 1 j l L Pillows, Pillow CH63 TCPAS; ViEn 1A11J. li-wa: DON ' T HAPPEN yo Vi • AVANT, WILL Va031 1 LEAPQrAST:.; W.; AN E IN A FEW DA VS. C F LUTI 17A VE EV- ( )EL)Ea HAVE hr ..,A,)PC OUT kin& of northern W Du ales, causing selves. ring the wh m ole time an- 1. 4 11Z great damage. The area of the storm darins were present and make ta z!! mrci. TTF\1 PFPNIT5PP STOry . ALI zi J f jel extended over the whole of England, t e mpt to t1\-' people fr°1 \\ e r- Ireland and the southern portion of rying away plunder. no lives were lost is almost entirely a matter T - 1 Scotland. A large number of coaet- ers were lost, of buck. The Scotch mieeionaries owed their escape to the fact that 1 A horrible aceident, resulting in the they had gone boating on the river at death of three members of the. ('Iii- the time of the outbreak. They bur- cago Inter Ocean staff and tagious ned back, and were just in time to rescue senior missionariee and infant 1-1 4 and escape whet the ineb arrived The Roman Cali, sietere barely escaped being netreeered en- • sicinment ar- • - 'liaise, several being severely injured. IA) 0 I.' r r)71..ir.rfir4 41 v ,g IV.11 Con ne First Con 1 • In Hon ICON things are stirring rivect Sinfr I (- again. Tlwre was a gathering. of the anti-forc!gn eLsulent here, including unents - will con - it large number of magistrates and flue nue till Stock • 1 m Wuchang have received threaten c - is op Polieeman Grant. lete. ing placards ordering them to leave The Russian government is nego- at once or they will be caterminated. tinting for the purchase of large The Taatai inspected the nunnery to - quantities of breadstuff in the United .1 1) r rA T TT I RIC 1 ki ti States. day, waking search for bones, eyes, The directors of the Great North- eke said to have been murdered by ern have declared a regular quarterly dividend of 1% per cent., payable Nov. 2. The report of the Northern Pacific railway company (exclusive of the Wisconsin Central) shows a net in- come of $11,314,000 for the year ended Juno 30, 18)1. After expenses and dividend; are paid there will be a surplus of $438,000. Save money by buying a stove of Gale & Newcomb, Demersville. A carload from which to select. Follow the crowd and get a square meal at the Windsor. the sisters. A dispateh from Shanghai, ilated September 12, is a follows: The North China Daily News says: There are points about the Ichang riot of serious importance. It is in no sense the work of a mot). There was indeed a pretext in the shape of a child said to have beea kidnapped on the day of the riot, but this evi- dently is merely a subterfuge in or- der to give the shadow of an excuse for the outbreak. Evidences that the riot was directed mud carried out by soldiers are only too numerous. There were people in authority who re- strained the outbreak in certain di- rections and fostered it in others. The Chinese brigadier general at Taihuergit ate . lirritair0 LI 9 but 116 was' helpless in the presenee Downer Building, Nu - view; Ave. Columbia Falls, : Montana. NOW READY. 'Venue's Grist Mill has just btm , P overhauled and put in execllent con- dition for making a firet artiele of White or Graham neer. lo a g.ntnral cue' tern business fanners. Tho m:11 be under tho ea- pervision of a first clase miller. Sat - I ail) for NMI\) ram AVENUEs C'elinlibie 3folitane Highest prices for butter, eggs and chieltens at. the Windsor Muse. Fine Watch iteptirintr. Persons desiring watch or jewelry repairing done tnay be sure of first- alass.wmk. leanatz.ordeat.. with. C. F. Sully, Columbia Falls. All work promptly attended to. • JESSE \INN th Prop

The Columbian (Columbia Falls, Mont.), 22 Oct. 1891, located at <http://montananewspapers.org/lccn/sn85053046/1891-10-22/ed-1/seq-1/>, image provided by MONTANA NEWSPAPERS, Montana Historical Society, Helena, Montana.