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FI.AX FOR FL.AT.iKAO VAf.i.KY. A Subject Now Being Seriously Dis- cnssetl Hero. To tlio Editor of T ub C olo * max : The growing of flax in tho United States is something which, while it has attracted but littlo attention, has had wonderful devolopuiu tho war. In 1860 only half a million bushels o f flax socd were raised ii the United States. The crop in 1895 is nstiipated to have been at least 16,- 000,000 bushels, 65 per cent of which was raised in Minnesota and tho Da kotas. Tho products from, the flax seed are two, meal and oil, whilo from tho straw, tlax fibre is made which convertible into binding twiue ai bagging. Tho great bulk of the meal cake made from the flax seed is shipped to England where it is used for tho feoding of stbck, though tho slock raisors of our country are- giuuing to nppreciato its .value this way nod nro using it more tcuhively each year. Its fatten qualities both for cattle and pork coed that of any other food. The oil cake ineol is being u very extensively through the Middle and Eastern states on dairy far with os satisfactory ittults in the creased yield of milk as when u: for the fattening of cattle. A Slit flux mill could be put into this v ley ut u very small exireuse, which item is now boing looked info, and in view o f the fact that a creamery is uu assured fact for tho valley, the use of the oil cake for dairying purposes is an additional item of interest to our farmers. ' .While flax is uu exhaustive rropou tin\ laud when raised successively, the manorial quality o( the oil cake whou used for feeding stock ou the farm much more than, offsets (he richness - which is drawn from the soil, so in this way flux seed is be coming a fertilizer ot the _hir;he.,t It has been clearly shown that (be farmer wbo mukes a success in Ills calling must diversify bis crops, and agaiu by experiment lie must ascer tain wbut crops can bo most success fully raised in tho district iu which ho is located, as well os what crops he can market to best advantage. Flax is a quick growiug crop and does not interfere with any otbor farm work. It should be sown from tho middle of May to tho 10th of June and is ready for harvesting in about sixty days, bonce it cau bo put in after tbo seeding of otbor crops is over and it is out of the way before harvesting of other grains com mences. In seediug, from 12 to 16 quarts per acre should bo used, ac cording to.the climate aud the quali ty and conditions of the soil. This can bo determined only by actual trial. In harvesting, if the autumns are not apt to bo wet, flux is cut and bound in bundles the'same as wheat, but where the country is Subject to wot weather it is bet er not to hiud it but use a bundle carrier ou tho binder ami Jet the (lax drop off in windrows, then stack the same as hay. aud let i: go through the sweat in tho stuck. The various- threshing machine co;n;unie< h nv .1 ix attach ments for their separator.-, to be used in threshing ilu\. New breaking, is especially well adapted Tor tbc raising of flax hut it is very esscutial that a clouu piece of land, free from woods be seioeted, as at first H lx grows slowly, and ou a foul piece of laud the weeds will! shoot ahead of the plant and choke it out It should not Ira raised on the same land for. over two cousocu tive years and it is better to rotate the crop euch year, as it is oxbnus- tive to certain qualities in tira iuud. We have by live years trial, shown’ that our soil is nimihr and fully oqual if no! superior, to that of the Rod River Valley of tho Dakotas. This wo Imve-p.'oven by tho sue.- *s« ful raising of Scotch Fife hint choked out riie flax crop, but on thi seventeen acres upon which the flax developed successfully, thoy rais, ah average of twenty bushels p acre. In the north western part of the valley Messrs. Murtin Prcstbyo and H. O. Christensen trier! a few acres o f flax also. We have not ob tained tho figures .from Mr. Christen sen, but Mr. Prestbye, on twelve acres sowed eight quarts (ono half tbo proper aiuoiiut) per aero of flax seed obtained from tbo east. His vas sown upon sandy Hoil found ohdhe upper bench lands of the valley, ahd bis yield wa« bushels poraere. Thus wo bat experiment of tho two kinds of seed and of tho two qualities of soil. Tho western seod is much larj^r than the eastern seed aud is Iratter for the oil meal. Tho eastern whili smaller, is better for., its oil qualities As the samples which wo sent off foi inspection wore considered worth tin aero would sottlo tjio question of which is the best kind of seed to be used, but as lust year’s experiment showed tho yield to be about tho same with the two kiuds of seed, if will require additional (rial to settle lhat question definitely Jor tho Flat- head valley. Samples of each kind of flax seed hare laiun sent to Duluth and to San Francisco where tests were made. There are only two grades of fl ix in each market. The best is culli-d No. 1 amt that which will not grade No. 1 is culled \Rejiratod\. The price of •joetod grade is governed i<y the irarceuluge of foul seed mid (he ini- of (lie berry ilse f. Tho eastern market lias been depressed owing to iMvuliur cilumw, wbicli are considered outy temper,:rv, about 3(1 cents i>er_bu.shol uuil at present writing San Francisco offors the best market f(fr._U»£j— valley, but eondi- tious may “alter that feature by an other fall. After considerable' correspondence with tho Great Northern Railwuy Co., relative to tho rato on flax seed, Mr. A. Gray, Ass't. G. F. A., has horized us to quote a rate of 55 conts per hundred from Kalispoll and Columbia Falls, to either Duluth Miuneupolis iu the east and Sau Francisco in tho west. Tho price of Sau Francisco is $1.70 per hundred; deducting 55 cents for freight, loaves 64.-1 cents per bushel, euee it will be readily seen that it dll net the farinors more per acre than any other grain crop which is being raised iu the valley, e are fort undo in having in\ our midst ouo geutlemnn Who has had a dozen or more years cxperienco in the raising aud liaudling of flax. Mr. Tinkle, senior member of the Kolispell Roller Mill firm, who after oxuminatiou of tho flax which has been raised hero, expressed his opin- tiiat our soil seemed to lie woll adapted for flax raising, mid lhat it would la* a good thing f< : dm farm- alley to try raising u few .-res of si It is believed that the flux s.-,.! dvv ill the valley which Bryant B os. and Mr. Prestbye have, is as good as mad\) of the three weeks e announced. >t the faruicis definite results <■ We would auggie this their The average yl.-l I of flax seed in the Rod River Valley is from 12 to 15 bushols, but in the Flutbeud with our new rich soil I lie j ield should easily run alraut 20 bushels per acre, aud tho trials of last year in the val ley guvo such u result. The stand ard weight of flax is 56 pounds per bushel. Experiments which were mado in our owu valley lost summer, show that the soil here is well adapt ed to the raising of flax. Fortunate ly the experiments gave a quadruple test, two kinds of seeds being used, ouo ou high and ono on low land. Bryant Bros, put iu 30 acres of flax iu tho lower vulley ou tho rid/ sandy loam which is found there. The seed which they used was tho westoru seed brought in from the Pacific coast, and they soodod 16 quarts to the ucre. Weeds got tho disco: alves mid if any further iuf< i desired Mr. Tinkle, tho parties who tried raising flax last year, or the Writer will be glad to give nil that is within their power. If the farmers \ih to call meetings in their respective portions of the valley to talk this mutter over, any of the aforesaid mentioned |unties will bo glad to be present and tell wligt they lik -ly there are nth, r people in the valley who have had qrarieueo iu the raising of flax, who raid also give valuable infer.nation. J. H abuixotox 'E dwards . Ka: spell, Jam.ary 17, 1890. FARMERS Who have Mied it sav IT PAYS THEM TO ADVERTISE ’ IN THE COLUMNS OF T h e C o l u m b i a n When they have Stock, Seed, Plauts or Anythiug Else to Sell or Trade. T R Y I T O N C E . M i l Cfflilfeioil is Cod-liver Oil MISSIONS IN TURKEY. r. Cyras Uani'ln Established 11 it Opposition—He Tho fact does not seem to be generally recognized that tho deplorable condition of uffairs in tbu laud of the sultan is of more than casual iuterest to Americans. That wo luivo missionaries in that blabd soaked laud and that theso missionaries have been iu mortal danger is generally recognized, but that those men and women who nro threatened with death at the hands of tho crnel Kurds aud Tnrlcs who have already mado tho blood of tho nations run cold with horror havo done more to spread enlightened ideas through that dark ompire than the rep resentatives of any other Christian na tion does not scorn to have \been (ally realized. It is n fact, bowover. It was the American board of foreign missions that established tbo first mis sion iu western Asiisniul from tho lam^ source havo sprang the most important of the evnugclical enterprises that ore ' slowly hat snrely lifting tbo gloom from tho country of the star aud cres cent. The obstacles which tbo pioneers of this movement met seemed almost insurmountable. Tho great majority of without the fish- f a t taste. You get all the virtue of the oil. You skip nothing but the taste. tho millions of people under tbo rule of tbosoltun they found were Mohamme dans, w ho looked upon all others as iufl- dols and best converted to the tree faith by the sword. They found that while legally nuy portion was entitled to ebango his religions belief, practically he could do no snch thing; that the Turk who renounced the faith of tho prophet at ouco became u social ontcast aud a subject for tbo most fanatical aud crnel perseentiou. This was bad enongb. Under these conditions it is not to bo wondered that so few Turks bavo been converted, hat that any should have been. Besides tho Mohammedan there are seven other creeds recognized— Greek, Armenian, Syrian, Maronfte, Protestant, Jewish and Roman Catholic. Tho harmony between these is not great Thus it was not u very promising field that the Rev. Dr. Cyrus Hamlin looked upou when ho went there early iu the fifties. To attempt to teach thoso people a new religion was purely out of the question. Tho way for that mnst first be prepared bj educating them. Liko bar- baiiaim, they must first ho civilized and ChristTiilllzMl iffffiWard. With money furnished by Christopher Robert, a wealthy New Vork merchant, and with $30,000 of his own, Dr. Hamlin endeav ored to establish a college, but such was the strength of tho prejudice of the Turkish government that for eight years be labored in voiu. At las.. Admiral Farragut sailed into tho Bo pirns with three big mcn-of-war and went ashore to pay his respects to tho iiorie. Dr. Hamlin told Fnrrngnt of Iho obstacles that hiul been thrown iu his way, and the udmirnl said that he would nee what ho could do fur him. The sultan looked at tho big ships wbicii flouted the Siam and stripes un der ills palace windows, olid ho was lunch impressed. Ho invited tho Ameri can admiral to n grand banquet in tbo pair.co of tbo grand vizier. Daring tbo course of tho entertainment Farragut asked tho sultan: \Why has Dr. Hamlin been prevent ed from buihjiug u college in your coun try?\ The answer mado was an evasive ouo, but soon after a charter- was granted by tbe terms of which a mos: beautifully situated plot of ground, overlooking Coustautinuphi and the Bo. penis was given to Dr. Hamlin. Afterward, wheu the graud vizier was asked why tho per mission had been giantod to (ho Ameri cans, lie replied in two words: “ Farragut, warships.\ It was iu 1803 that Robert college was built. Additions have been made riuco then aud - now three im poring buildings are occupied by Professor Washburn a id li*s able cor|a of profess- an illuotr.;:i<«i of tbo vast iuflu' iiich tin's im titution a exerting parts of the Turkish empire it is that iu ibo national jxt unbly of Bulgaria are co less than l g,aduates of Robert college. This inttitah-iii now offers the advantages of a full college course to 333 students. Dr. Hamlin, who was tho president of Robert college fur nearly 30 years, finally retired from missionuiy work and returned to this country. lip/ 380 he be- canio president of Middloburv coliege at Middlebui-y, Vt. Ho is now- 5-1 yearn old and lives at Lexington, Mass He began his missionary work iu 15 38 and for nearly half a country labored iu foreign Another remarkable example of suc cess iu tbo faco of great opposition was tbo establishing of the American schools at Beitofi ThebO were begun in 1830 by tbo Presbyterian board. At first there were ouly n handful of childreu. but to day tho schools, hoarding schools and oollegcs founded there by Americans have no less than 1 5.000 scholars, and Beirut is recognized as the cdccati-ounl metropolis of western Asia. A T S M A L L PO S T . Thai _____ ! E xpress M one ? O rder . | Lave any red tape to go through, but ! you pay your money and get an or der good for its fBce anywhere in the U. S. or Canada. Euro|raan orders at lowest rates. Two money order offices in Columbia .Falls. One at the depot and the ono down town at The Columbian office. PUBLICATIONS O P THE GREAT NORTHERN RAILWAY ST. P A U L , MINN. The Osneral P om iu Kailway will ho |,l 0 A*o,l 1 , 11.0,1 hflnyr or i named nftoi took*. mops nud pamphlets have 1 nt consider.-! ble cost and am in ------ “ —• tbe post rare. Thej BOOK FOLDER— Send 2 cts for postage. MAP FOLDER-Sent Free. This contains the recnlw time schedules; i find picket mndiitions. ani ATLAS OF THE N0RTHWEST.- Send 15c f o r postage. n* MlMw/th! ''tiro 1)\ £ ,t*aV Monte nil /tdshl LARGE WALL M AP-Send 25cts. for postage. dnrnnllj- printed nnd useful in every efTiee and\ pa rte oV thV N^t hi^r-t^jid^tdwi^re now hangj VALLEY, PLAIN AND PEAK. F r o m M idlan d L a k e s to W e s tern O c e a n — Send 10c. • attractive publication contains nearly d from photographs, ornament ally'cmlx-fi I. nnd occonipamrd by descriptive matter harneloristic initials hesmifully pr.nty DESCRIPTIVE PAMPHLETS OR BULLETINS-Send 2 ots. for postage. A series of illustrated publications on Minne sota. tho two Dakotas. Montana and Waahing- HUNTING AND FISHING BULLE TINS-Send 4 c f o r p ostage on the t\yo. VIEWS OF MOUNT INDEX AND KOOTENAI CANYON— Send 50 cts each. THE EVERGREEN STATE-Send 2c*. for postage. FACTS ABOUT A GREAT COUN- T R Y -S e n t free. & : ,r ,j n l ......... .. \• 'b“ A TO U R O F \O U R COUN T R Y \ - - - ! ^ ^ ^ J F .I, WHITNLY, G .P .& T .A ., ! / t, Pau l, M inp Watchmaking ninl Repairing. 1’artirs <!oairing watch, clock or jewelry repairing douc, or engraving of any kind may Icavo orders at Sul- ly's More, wlmm I call twico a week. Charged UK-dcndi! anti all work guar- Ail persona owing account* will plcuso coil and nettle -before the same are placed iu the hands of un attorney. Louis S chorx . C A S H i iC A S H See what One Dollar in CASH will do: Evaporated Raspberries per lbfl 25c Evaporated Apples, per lb. - 8c Evaporated Peaehes, per lb. - 8c 4 1-2 lbs Good Coffee - $1.00 6 lbs. Broken Java Coffee1 -~ $1,00 25 oz, Can Baking Powder - 25c R. W . MAIN & CO. COLUMBIA FALLS, M ONTANA. k CASH: CASH )WEN ELECTRIC APPLIANCE CO, S T A T E S T R E E T ,,/ C H I C A G O . Kennedy ii Decker, LIVERY.FEED & SALESTABLK First Class Kigs and Good Saddle Hones Biffliellj DayorlMl. B lacksmith S hop in C onnection Third 81. and First Avo. East. COLUMBIA FALLS. \ - MONT. Many persons having failed to get the Cincinnati Weekly Enquirer at the special clubbing rate, we have succeed ed in getting the arrangement contin ued till Feb. 15. The Columbian and the Enquirer both one year for $1.75. Regular Columbian subscribers have the Enquirer for 30c.