What is this?
Optical character recognition (OCR) is an automated process that converts a digital image containing numbers and letters into computer-readable numbers and letters. The search engine used on this web site searches OCR-generated text for the word or phrase you are looking for. Please note that OCR is not 100 percent accurate. If the original image is blurry, has extraneous marks, or contains ornate font styles or very small text, the OCR process will produce nonsense characters, extraneous spaces, and other errors, such as those you may see on this page. In addition, the OCR process cannot interpret images and may ignore them or render them as strings of nonsense characters. Despite these drawbacks, OCR remains a powerful tool for making newspaper pages accessible by searching.
r THE E1CALAKA, EAGLE. 0 1 A BOOSTS LIM OF DEBT FOR COUNTY tjUPREME COURT DECISION IN- ' CREASES CONSTITUTIONAL . LIMIT THREE TIMES Decision Is, Most Important Handed Down in Years and Affects Every Town, City . and County in Mon- tana; Helps in Providing ,Relief for Farmers Hit by Drought. Every county and city in the state of Montana las had its limit of con- stitutional indebtedness raised three times by the recent supreme court de- cision. As an illuetration, Great Palle, which has been just on the limit of her indebtedness, three per cent of the taxable valuation, for several pur- poses, and 10 per cent additional for water and sewerage purposes, can now become indebted juat three times • that amount. Instead of - basing the amount upon $16,000,000 taxable valuation in the city, it will now be based upon about $48,000,000. Under the ruling of the supreme court every county in Montana can take care of ita dry land farmers by voting relief bonds—and . the bonds can be converted into cash for that purpose. - The decision is tliq most important one handed down by the supreme court in many years, and reaches every community, town, - Neity and county in Montana. The supreme court had handed down an opinion in the case of .State ex rei. Frank Galles vs. the board of county commissioners of Hill county, which will be of wide -spread interest to counties, cities, towns, and appli- cants for relief untibr the so-called Belden bill enacted under the recent extraordinary session of the legisla- tive assembly. On September 2nd the voters of Hill county authorized the creation of an indebtedness in the sum of $1,- 000,000 for the relief of the drought - stricken farmers of that county. Ap- plication for relief was made by Gal- les to the board of county commis- sioners and the board declined kto grant the relief until the courts would determine the limitation of in- debtedness of, Hill county, that is to say, whether the limitation of indebt- edness should be based upon the as- sessed valuation or the so-called tax- able valuation of 1919. Galles filed an original proceeding in the supreme court to hay ethe question of law de- termined. In the decision handed down this morning the supreme court holds that the assessed valuation and not the taxable valuation is the basis upon which the limitation of indebt- edness of a county, city or town may be determined. The assessed valua- tion referred to is that valuation fix- ed by the assessor and equalized by the county and state boards of equali- zation, and the taxable valuation is' that valuation as extended by th.e. county clerks upon which taxes are paid and which last mentioned valua- tion is the valuation determined by the percentages provided for in the tax law enacted at the regular ses- sion of the legislative assembly. To illustrate, the asseseed valuation of Cascade county for the year 1919 is In excess of $116,000,000, and the taxable valuation is $39,000,000. The limitation of indebtedness of Cascade county, inclusive of present indebted- ness is, therefore, 6 per cent of $116,000,000. The effect of the decision is that the debt creating ability of counties, cities and towns is increased ap- proximately three times that hereto- fore permitted. 18 AIRMEN WILL PAROL FORESTS ROUTES THROUGH WESTERN MONTANA ARE BEING PRE- PARED BY ARMY MEN . Military Aviators Will Be Sent Out h‘ Uncle Sam; State Forester Van Hook Sees Successful Ending to His Efforts in Securing This Form of Protection. Foreets of Montana, northern Wy- oming and northerp Idaho, will be regularly and systematically patrol- led by a squadron of 18 flyers fur- nished the state and federal forest next season by the United States army, according to State Forester J. C. VanHook. \At present the three agenc.les which will cooperate in this service, the army and state and federal for- est services, are peeking two supply bases from which the flyers will start,\ Mr. VanHook .explalned last week on his return fit% a trip over some of the buTned over timber lands of the state. In addition landing stations will be needed in every large city in Mon- tana and elipecially in the western part of the state in order to co-oper- ate fully in this work. By this patrol system, Montana will have the great- est protection from forest fire losses in her history and in addition will be able to get accurate information 813 to the exteant and location of fires in much shorter time than eas avail- able Worn the ground •patrol system. Routes throughout the forests of 6 Per Cent Farm Loans ---No Commission Write tor information and name of our bank corrempondent in your com- munity, who will monist you in me - curio. a loan, without charge for their service. Under Government Super•vipion THE MONTANA JOINT STOCK I.AND BANE IFTEVSNA MONTANA over. So when Monroe appeared on the scene, he so favorably impressed the factor that the latter decided to appoint the young man to fit him- self for the position of Blackfeet interpreter. The lackfeet had just made their first visit to the company's new fort, at were leaving to hunt and trap along. the tributaries of the Mi ri during the winter. Monroe went with them under the pro- tection of the head chief, a mighty warrior who had 19 wives, two lodges and an immense band of horses. By easy stages they traveled along the foothills of the Rockies on the eastern slope until they reached Sun river, and there they wintered at about the point where Fort Shaw stands today. Then, in the spring, instead of returning north to the Hudson Bay country, they dossed the Missouri, hunted in the Yellowstone country and returned to the mouth of the Marias, on the Missouri river, where they wintered. Their camping spot was approximately that where Fort Piegan was built in 1831, and where the ill-fated Ophir City was later the scene of a massacre by the Blackfeet that wiped it out of existence. - The following spring, wi0 all the furs their horses could carry, the Indians returned to Mountain Fort on the Saskatchewan. Instead of dne winter, Monroe had passed two with the tribe, and in that time had acquired a wife, who was a daughter of the head chief. He had also secured a thorough knowledge of the language of the Blackfeet, and had been given an honorable nanr — Mirkwi4-po-wak-sin (Rising MUNE WOLF MINIUM IS A MONUMENT TO FIRST WHITE BROTHER OF BLACKFEET Rising Wolf Mountain, Which Rears Its Crest Above Two Medicine Lake, is Named After Hugh Monroe, Who Wes First White Man to Hunt and Fight with Blackfeet Indians; lie Spent Winter of 1815 on Sun Itiver and the Next Winter on the Missouri River at the 31outh of the Marlin'. • Rising Wolf tnountain, in Glacier Park, is a splendid and fitting Wolf). I le got his name from his habit of rising quickly on his hands monutnent to the first white man who traversed the foothills of the when awakened from sleep, just as a wolf does when it wakens. It is Rocky mountains between the Saskatchewan and the Missouri. I told by the old Black feet, too, that he also slept like a wolf, because he Hugh Monroe was his English name. His Indian name, bestowed I never slept soundly, but appeared always to be listening and watching by the Blackfeet, was that from which the noble mountain whose crestiwhile he slept, just as a wolf does. No one ever could get near him and is slicnyn above took its name—Rising Wolf. 'catch him asleep, it is told. . rrfly ; his mother was Amelie de la Roche, a daughter of a -noble learned the Blackfeet language from a Cree Indian who spoke it well, Thi father of Monroe was Captain Hugh NIonroe of the British During Monroe's two years' absence from the fort, another- man had French family that came to Canada from the old Nzorld 200 years so that Monroe was ordered to remain with the Blackfeet, to travel with ago. Hugh Monroe was born in Montreal in 1798: lit 1814 he re- them and to see that they came annually to the fort to trade in the win- ceived permission to enter the employ of the Hudson Bay compan s i, ter's catch of furs. This exactly suited him, as he much preferred and one year later, in 1815, he arrivld at the .company's new po t, roaming the plains to living in the stuffy rooms of the fort. Nlountain Fort, on the North Fork of the Saskatchewan and close Monroe became a famous hunter and trapper, and a warrior of re - to the foothills of the Rockies. . nown as well. He was a member of the secret society of Ai-in-i-kiks, At that time the Hudson Bay Company had but recently entered the or Seizer band of the All -Friends Society of the Blackfeet. The duty Blackfeet territory, and none of its employes understood the Blackfeet of tile Scizers,was to keep order in the great camp, and see that the peo- language. The Blackfeet were a proud, warlike tribe—the hardest ple obeyed the hunting laws—a most difficult task at times. people the Hudson Bay Company had encountered among the Indians to On many occasions he went to war against other tribes, and once, deal with. But the Blackfeet trade in furs, it was realized, would be near the great Salt Lake, when with a party of 200 B.laadeet warriors, enormous, and every effort was made to win this profitable business he saved Ihe life of the famous Jim Bridger and his party of trappers. Bridger had with liim'a dozen white men and as many Snake Indians, the latter bitter enemies of the Blackfeet. The Snakes were discover- ed and the Blackfeet party was preparing to attack when NIonroe saw that there were white men with them. \Stop!\ he shouted to the Blackfeet bra , . es, \white mem arc with them. We must let them go in peace.\ \But they are Snake white men and our enemies. We will kill them all,v the Blackfeet chief answered. However, such was the power of NIonroe over the Black feet that, when they saw he would not attack, they, to,o, refrained. Then Monroe went forward 'with a flag of truce and found that his friend, Bridger, whom he had met many times before at frontier gatherings, was the leader of the other party. That evening the white men and Snakes and Blackfect smoked and slept together. It was a narrow escape for Jim Bridger and his handful of men. Monroe had three sons and daughters, who grew up into fine, stal- wart men and women. Up and down the country he roamed with them, trapping and hunting, and often fighting hostile war parties. They finally all married, and in his old age he lived with one and.another of them till his death, in 1896,\in his 98th year. He was buried near the Buffalo Cliffs, down on Two Medicine river, where Ile had seen many a herd of buffalo decoyed to their death. A number of Rising Wolf's descendents live on the Blackfeet reserva- tion and take a proper pride in their fatrious forbear. The Last Days of the Long Trail (By L. E. Carter) What an dpic is the passing of the old-time cowboy! For the past de- cade Montana has been WS refuge. Stock raising was the principal in- dustry of the state. The bunchglass of that cattlemen's paradise wall the birthright of great herds that roam- . the state, linking the cities in the western part are being prepared by the array officers, and the forestry service. Major Smith, who was here with a machine on a trial flight over the forests a month ago, met with the forestry officials at Missoula and went over the forest in detail in pre- paring this work. HE COMES TO INSPECT OUR MILITIA; FINDS WE HAVE NONE Evidently the . war department at Washington is not aware that the Tie- tional guard of Montana is not reor- ganized, for a representative of the army, Col. E. Phillips otthe Presidio, San Francisco, with his adjutant, came to Helena last week onethe usual semi-annual inspection of the national guard and WHB surpriped to learn that there was no organization in this state. The colonel visited Ad- jutant General Phil GrAenan ani3 made a brief inspection of Fort Wil- lia m IIenry Harrison. ed its hills, valleys and plains. The brush, the draws and couleee were their sole protection from the incle- mencies of the weather. Myriads of stock were often tallied as pissing during unusual storms. The writer recalls that historic winter when 2,000 dogleg fresh from Texas Pan- handle were turned loose in the fall and only two dozen heifers were found in the spring roundep. They could not maintain themselves in the crusted snow and raging blizzards. Those were the days of man-sized gambles with the elements. If you won. the winning was tremendous; if you lost, you simply went out of busi- ness with a stoic's calm. It was all in the game. • Ranchmen made their last stand in the foothills, just beyond tbe open range. It wai but a brief respite, this last short grass retreat of the wood- ed slopes. But what a haven it *as In the series of backward steps of the open-lange beef industry! Barb- ed wire was the first enemy of a los- ing fight. That foredoomed engage- ment was fought out all over the country, extending between Mexico and Canada. and from west of the Miasissippi to the Rockies. It, too, was a great stamping ground, and cattle yielded only to the advancing tides of human economy. Pastures became farms. The boasted suprem- acy of cattle yielded to the necessity of the homesteader and the nester. The sparse pastures fitted for sheep only made them reel backward and ever west to the land of the setting sun. The irrigation ditch WItfi never a friend of the cattleman. By right of discovery the old cowman depend- ed on the water -hole. But these are all things, of the past; the smoke - winds from Montana-way are the death -knell of the free range. \They are going.\ The reports come in one by one from here and there. From over range and plain old-timers hear the lament. The cattle country is no more. And to- night mine is a sweet recollection, as memories of its glories and charm crowd upon a pulsing pen. In re- trospect gleam pictures of nightfall and camp fire, starlight and lulling zephyr, song and story; and an echo from the stamping, milling herd bed- ded down for the night, saddle galls all forgot. No more the clink of spur; the swift, if profane, jest as the long loop falls at the corral's gate, in doom to a maverick's ca- reer; the frenzied, wild dash and lunge and odor of burning flesh as the hot iron sears the brand in quiv- ering fbrute. The long -drawn day Is over. 'The limitless search through arroyo midst quaking aspen ,and tall grass has ceased. As tha Arab folds his tent and silently departs in tbe night, so has faded the gay young buckaroo. The saddle he packed from ranch to ranch today hangs mouldy and worn, In limp disgrace and a relic of han- pier days, on the obsc4kre walls of some remote livery stabte. anigingumisummimainontitiniimintiiiculi Stee less hts H! LISTEN! BUM PURSUES CULTURE PURE SPEECH, SOFT TONES, PRO-. PER INFLECTIONS TO RE- pLAcv STREET SLANG School Teachers to Put on Campaign to Tie the Can to All Words and Phrases that Jar the Ear and Of- , fend Sensibilities of Other Mon- tana Folk. Shades of Dublin GnIch and Mea- derville! Butte is getting refined and is reaching\out for culture. Butte is c.asting a yearning _eye on Boston. wlibre the street urchins who sell papers wear spectacles and discuss Greek philosophy, conversing in Eng- lish only of the purest. Butte is go- ing to endeavor to eradicate slang and questionable grammar and intro- duce into its homes - and the mines on the hill gentle speech, soft tones, proper inflections. , Today if you went\to Butte your ears might be shocked by some such conversation.as follows between two young paper salesmen on the street: \Say if dat bird wid de red sweat- er don't keep off my beat wile I'm on shift,`I'll knock him loose front his cough and sink a shaft wid his head. D'ye get me?\ \I'll say she do,\ replies the youth addressed, meaning that the state- ment of intentions made is perfectly clear. But if you postpone your trip to Butte for a month or two, the con- versation would be in this wise: \Elmer I must voice my objection to the presence of the young gentle- man in the red sweater on this par- ticular street corner during the pe- riod in which I am engaged in the sale of newspapers, and if he refuses to comply with my requesf to seek another field for his operations I shall feel disposed to appeal to the newsboys' union for an arbitration of our differences.\ \Roland repliea the other boy, \I agree entirely with you in the atti- tude you have assumed, and I am convinced that right :hall prevail.\ Sponsored by a number of achool teachers of Butte, the \Better Speech\ campaign is to be put on, be- ing designed to extend the use of correct English from the school room to the entire community will last six ' days. That is, the \drive\ will last six daye, but the effort to put the American tongue on a par with the European language is expected to continue thenceforth 366 days a year. Teachers complain that incorrect language in the home and on the street makes it impossible for them to prevail on the pupils to use pure grammar in the class room. When father comes home from the \1 -foot level\ and says, \She's deep enough,\ meaning he has re- signed from the service of the mining company, the hopeful who sits next to . him at theditilVer table is likely to use similar language to express thoughts for which expensive text books teeming with masterpieces of literature are provided only to be found powerless in competition with the prolific slang characteristic of Butte. For six days, tlien, parents and older brothers and sisters are to be requested to talk \United States\ after the fashion prescribed by Web- ster. Father will not say, \I dropped to the sump,\ but \I descended to the lowest level.\ Sister will not say. \He's the real tobacco chew,\ in ex- pressing her opinion of an estimable gentleman. Brother, instead of say- ing, \We was takin' five when tha supe came along,\ will say, °We were resting when the superintendent ap- peared.\ The purification campaign must be extended terfhe street and one who is introduced to a stranger v.111 not ask. \Where did you tend bar?\ but will inquire \From what city or locality did you come?\ The teachers who are promoting the linguistic reform, plan to have posters printed and distributed about the city giving lists of words improp- erly used, citing the correct construc- tion of a sentence and ways of ex- pressing thoughts forcefully without resorting to slang. Of course, pro- fanity can scarcely hope to survive in such an atmosphere as the teach- ers would envelop Butte, much like an enemy trench was deluged with poisonous gas.. g a = and coffee -drinking are closely linked together with many people. If your case is like that, try • Instant Posturn —a wholesome cerealtirink with a really rich coffee-like fla_ v9r that meets the test of taste,16st as the beverage itself meets the tesi health. Econonncal, Ready Instantly, Delicious Made by Postum Cereal Company Battle Creek, Michigan Sold by Grocers and 'General Stores 81111111111111C0311111111111101311111111110111111111111011 1 11 1111111(071111111111110111111111111011111111111102111 SiMill a