Geyser Judith Basin Times (Geyser, Mont.) 1911-1920, November 05, 1915, Image 1

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Canada thistle is gaining a foothold In parts of Montana. This is a most disagreeable weed pest and farmers do well to be active in destroying the first plants that appear on their farink This pest was introduced from Europe and ia known in England as the soft field thistle. It is perennial, that is. it lasts a long period of years, and it has deep running rootstalks. The stems are erect, from two to four feet high. with flowers slightly resembling a dan- delion in shape and ranging in color from pale purple through ahadas of pink to white. The plant multiplies by means of seeds which are carried through the all on plume -like attachments from thi head, and by means of rootstalka which spread through the soil and send tit plants from the joints. The Montana legislature of 1895 pas sed a .law declaring Canada thistle Scotch Bull thistle, and Russian thistle each to be a common nuisance. Th law provides that any person permit ting these thistles to go to seed on lam which he owns or controls shall be guilt of \supporting and maintaining a corn mon nuisance,\ and penalties are pro vided for persons convicted of such of. fence. In eastern Canada, where the thistle has been growing for many years, the method of killing it out of fields badly infested i s to fallow one year, allowing the thistle* to develop until the flow- ers commence to open, and then plow deep. This will throw the rootstalks Op ern top and those should be harrowed oat to ,fg. os . ,9ot eurface, The .ftecond thistle erillp rimy be destroyed by plow- ing again in the fall and letting the frost kill the routs turned up. The next year the field is planted to inter - tilled crops, like corn, potatoes, and roots, and the thistles are kept down all the season. This seriously weakens these weeds, and there is uually little trouble in the grain crop planted the next ea - son. Clover is sown with this and the timea during the season. lkiep &owing in the fall, ,followed by careful apring tillage and cutting off the thistles see - dial times, will keep this nasal from de- veloping. Do not plow and cultivate through a patch of thistles wlun working the elt1 into shape. Pieces of rootstalk will de dragged to other places In the field did new thistle centers will develope. When cultivating a thistle patch, do Aria by itself. Pieces of routstalk are ike pieces of potato --they will grow chenever conditions ate at all favorable. Seeding down a thistle -infested field o alfalfa or clover that is (tit sev- er! times a seasen will ieduce the thia- le crop. The culthig has a very unfav- rabic effect WI the development of tee histle. 125 Bu. of Oats Prof. Alfred Atkinson has kept a chose ab on the work at Mentana expe m rient tations and reports the following yields rom the Moccasin) station: One hundred w and tenty-five bushels of oats to the mire 111111 SS bushels of barks -to the acre on unirrigateil land is the remarkable record made by the - Montana experiment station upon its experiment farm near Moccasin. Fileus county, :is 1111,011'd by Prid, -.41!Ai • kin sort station agronomist, who has just visited the farm. The oats %%WI. of the Sixty-day variety and the averff age of -125 bushels was reached upon a tract of 12 acres. The barley WAS tiff' the seed will be carefully chained and tested and will be offered for sale by the experiment station next spring. The land u )011 whieli these remarkable (Topa - .• • ^ ,•••••••,..6 MI& : field is cut for hay for two years. I were raised had been eropped be one In many sections of Montana it is ,.-ear previous to this time for wheat. impracticable to plant an intertilled crop This has been an exceptionally -fortua- on a very large part of the farm. The ate year in the amoont and distribution tiling to do i 5 to watch out for limutelles of rainfall which, since the first of 14 'Millar hits been about 15 inches • 11 8 compared with the normal rainfall Of almot 10 inches. The barley %VAS Taillid from seed brought to the United States rmit Asiatic 'J'tnu key. WHAT ONE MAN WHO IS EX- PERIENCED THINKS OF PAPERS Every one has visited towns apparent- ly well located, with equally good coun• try surrounding then) and with every• thing that makes for good towns ap- patently tqual, but have seen some of these towns to he up mid hustling earl others to be at a standstill or on the decline. Here is the reason given bv a wider wile has traveled and watched for reasons: Stand by your town newspaper. If there is auything in your town worth talking about, ten chances to one your little town paper had a hand in put- ting it there, and if there exists 0.1), tiiisiglitly or unsavory nuisanees, twenty chances to one it will stay there until your town editor sees it or smells it and wipes his pen on the town board's ! breeches. If anybody beyond the walk of your little burg ever learns that there is such a as Peacevillii, it will pe through the town oracle. .4:very village gets its 1110110 ' 8 worth in the village newspaper. It's the wag• 611 that earths all your good things to market. It might to be kept in good re- pair. In many casea it would pay to grease it, paint it, keep its running gear in shape and shelter it at the public ex- : reere. \Sfand bv yolk local newspaper. krei we need to remernber that it i Milt's Smyrna variety and 064 aver• It's the guardian find defender of ev• ' a age was also reached upon a tract of hiry interist, the force -Inner and pion. the ire of the debt and its earning o non -earning character, and not the rat several acres. Cer of every advance moveMent and the :of A half carload of each of the eat ! sturdy advocate of law and order. Take interest, which determines whethe ir not we can meet our obligations'. Fon Isar -ley have been sent to Bozeman where it away. and it would not be six months it inatenee, it is a fact that the rnortgap drag, e . d indebtedricsa of the farms of th wortid Northwest, including those sold on vat ions payment plans, is roughly 30 pe cent of their selling value. It is ale a fact that 50 per cent of the farm- are, the Northwest is unimproved. It S. oitirely fair to say, then, that in th aggregate the mortgaged indebtednes if the farms in Minnesota and the Da , kotas is represented by idle land, hel or speeitlative• purposea. That this sit al rut has its effect upon interest rat. s undoubtedly true. It could not Ii itherwise. In the long run the averag if interest rates is fixed by the averng s irotitalihmess or unprofitableness of th Mainess done in the trade area. i• specilletive business commands high rates; a productive, low rates. 1Vhen a man has bought a farm or . time, has run a store bill on crop Ile- , ,urity, has given one, two, and three year notes for machinery, has bonght ,teama on a fall payment basis, he can- not conaistently talk of lack of credit Any man with half a will to take ehan CPR cart get and does get this practicall unlimited eredit simply hy asking for it. In the face of obligatiOns aggregat ing possibly 1515,0M the matter of twi or even five eents a year on the dollar is little compared to the demands mad. for the repayment., Of -the original o the loan. The interest rate above tivi or six per cent merely reflects the aver a unc aver age of ertainty as to that repay men t One seldom }liars objection, at thur time credit is given, to the , rate of in (crest chargild. The objection come when the debtor re-alb:ea that he came, meet his obligations. He believes thi high !-site to be the MIN(' of his failuri when the truth of the matter is that i is the result of other men's actual am his own perspeclive failure. Now a man can very well afford tc pay 10 per eent., or even more, for a atiinhl Ilmolinc of money, provided that money will save the rest of his invest merit, but no man ran afferd to pay ex• eessive interest rates on his entire earn- ing capital. The man whose land is mortgagcd at one-third of its value, arid I whoae acres are half idle, or if at work are earning hut one-half what they ahoold, in effect has his working capital mortgaged to twe-thirds cif its value. ,iind is paying out of the product ive Sere.; of his farm, not at the rate of six or seven per rent, but Instead at .12 or 14 per cent! l' one is burdened with debts and high iliterest, one way to put the in - STUDENT'S BUILD. \X\ ON MOUNT . SENTINEL Concealed by a great bank of fog, 1:}0 freshmen of the University of Mon- tana climbed Mount Sentinel in Mis soula Saturday and began the task of ceplacing the giant \M\ which was de- stroyed during a recent wind storm and which was held dearly, by ail students end alUmni of the university. Ambitious to construct a letter whiel a mild in itself be a monument to tin : I n i : - I i t t i ont industry ofthe class of 1919, the fresh• ructed the big emblem sev ; ail hundred feet above the 0 14 ir 0 o 4 ' letter or rather what is- left of Itrfere the Crowd began work, engineei' lilt mapped out a letter 100 feet from ter. to bottom. At an early hour th , hi „lilt arrived, a \bucket\ line reach die nearly a quarter of a oxile was mad it'd rocks were tossed from hand ti -eied to the scene of the constructior us -here other atudents put then place.nit ii Shortly before noon the . great cloud if fog began to lift and from all ove Missoula could by teen the outline e lie new emblem.' At noon the -girls if the class followed the trail and near• ly a thousand feet above the campus, •.rvial lunch to the hungry workers. before the town would look as Irish been doped. Thisiness would ; iociety would yawn and grass .iriew between the cobbles.\ Our underwear is made big enough. Sure, you and the children all need Hew underclothes. Make out your size list and come in now and buy all you will need this winter, all at one time. Save trouble. You will also sak , money by buying underwear and everything else you need from us. Try us. We carry a full line of hardware, beds, springs, mattreses, ranges and heaters APPLES! APPLES! A PPLES! Wallie has bought a car of Fancy Washington apples. They are here. Get yours. Wattle buys for less and we sell for less. SIZE OF DEBT IS THE BURDEN The following is taken from Farm - .4teek and Home and deals with a sub e i t that is vitally important to every in this country. Whether the writer has the correct idea is left for you ti. , decide: ‘VI' in the Northwest are sufferin; ,from too much rather than too littl credit. We do not need further exten lion of our present far:Jiffies; for goin- into debt. We can even- now acquit. more debts than we ea& readily pay tertat rate Is to put every acre on the farm at work to its full earning capa- city. Another way is to sell the idle acres and cancel the debt. And what ' Le good businesi for the iadividual is equally good business far the' commun- ity. ' Cheap money edam only as idle land and speculation disappear. These facts underlie the credit sit- uation. Aluch may be done in a, cor- rective way to better local conditions. Bankers and bulinesa men generally need to have their attention sharply ailed to the changing situation when. ever better business methods and re- sults of farming justify better cretin terms., But the dream of \cheap\ money for incur overwhelmed with debt is a political fantasy, bound, if we allow it to mislead us, to Wait to its disappoint- ment and loss of valuable time in achieving our complet• . 'economic free- rtcmt - •. RURAL ROAD WORK That full value may be received for he money appropriated for road put:- - roses and that the byst results obtain- able may be secured it is essential that the right man shall be placed in charge of road work. He should be selected not only because ha actually knows more *bout good roads that any other person In the community, hut also be- cause he can get the best results from the money furnished. It is not sulli• cunt, however, to let the matter rest with the appointment of a road super- visor. lie should receive the whole• hearted support of the community in the work. it should be seen to that under the conditions and with the mon- ey furnished the community is getting what it has a right to expect in the way of road improvsinent 7 It Is well. to remember that If . for sat. remote- aa neotnpetent man is placed in charge of the work the responsibility for failure rests upon the community. Tkere should be no other consideration, there. fore, in aeleeting a road overseer than that of securing a man with the ability to perform the duties required. It should be realized that good roads have much to do with the prosperity of a -ommunity and that united action in the ;ight direction is the surest and quick- -at. Where the road overseer has had but ittle experience in road work, or where tome new and difficult problem is pre- ented to the experienced man, the Of - die of Public Heads and Rural Engin- .ering of the department, whin request- ed, will offer atitice and suggestions for carrying on the work and how best _o overcame the difficulties. To secure a satisfactory road of any type it is absolutely necessary to rem - umber: First, drainage; second, drain - Age; and third drainage. The earth .-oad, properly cared for, will answer aatialactorily for the traffic oh nany rural section that cannot afford be batter types of roads; but the earth road \must be well drained. After this 'act 13 well understood, two other re- ptirenients may be taken up— the lo- lition of the road and reduction of ,Trades to a general average of 5 per With the exception of sandy roads, which are easiest for traveling when lamp, all roads must have proper side hitches to carry away the surface wa- .er to the ditch, the road eurface must have a crown, or rounded roof, highest -n the center and sloping toward the dde ditches, clay, and gravel roads -rowned, by the use at the split-log ,!rag, is explained in Farmers' Bulletin .07, copies of which may be obtained upon application to the department. After the road has been crowned and the crown is kept in condition by the wise use of the road drag, it should be teen to that ditches are kept free from weeds, etc., and that they are deep nough to carry off the water which runs into them. In most roses a wide, iliallow ditch is bent. Deep (Mehra are Iangi' fit traffie. At spar -es of every ew hundred feet along the road way 11 culVeli of sonic kind should GP placed to carry away the water nlinh has gathered in the ditches. A read preperly built generally will Nei have an average grade ot num (loth 5 ler rent. By \per is -lit of grade' . is imam the number of feet a road ris. Cs or -climba\ for every hundred feet of jte length. On a road of I per rent grade the horses need pull the load up a rise of only oats foot for every hun- dred feet they travel. It 1 -• been found that Where a horse can en.i a full load When a few men are cloth- ed with power to ienrom ari extravagant, unreason- able Fire Tax upon good, honest, hard working, reli- able citizens, it makes 'Kid' Curry's train robberies look like a Sunday school picnic. There are only two names for such: A very ignorant blunder, or a broad -daylight holdup. But the Scriptures must be fullfilled. \He that hath will be added unto, and he that bath not shall be taken away even that which he hath.\ Now bear in mind the - old cap and ball saying: Its very true and easy to under stand; the man that sets down on a red hot stove will surely rise again. Fireman's pants Fireman's jackets Fireman's shoes I- ire engit to gloves Fireman's caps _ on level ground; lie is only able to pull only one-half that load on a 5 per cent grade and only one-fourth that load on A 10 per cent grade. More trips must be made to and from market on a road with just one bad hill in order to haul the !same amount that can be hauled at one trip on a level road. Bulletin 220 of the Department of Agriculture contains pictures of small models 'of good roads, \some of which plight be very helpful in understanding the construction of a road. One model illustrates the use of the different kind of ditches, culverts. etc. Another mo• del shows the relocation of a road. A steep hill on the old road has . been a- voided by relocating the road around the foot uf the hill, saving the horses many a hard pull. Relocating the road may he expensive at the first cost, but very often repays the community many times over the saving of labor, time, and equipment.

Geyser Judith Basin Times (Geyser, Mont.), 05 Nov. 1915, located at <>, image provided by MONTANA NEWSPAPERS, Montana Historical Society, Helena, Montana.