Geyser Judith Basin Times (Geyser, Mont.) 1911-1920, January 07, 1916, Image 2

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GEYSER JUDITH BASIN TIMES GREAT ROME I : N the valley 'of the Rio Grande river, on the border between the United States and Mexico, engi- neers of the United States have almost finished the greatest reclamation project ever at- tempted. At a cost of $10,000,- 000 the Elephant Butte dam in New Mexico, which will turn 180 square miles of almost worthless desert into fertile farms, has been constructed. For three years from the time the water was turned into the gigantic reservoir, the entire flow of the Rio Grande will be required to fill it. This artificial Jake is forty miles long and from three to six miles wide. It will hold 650,000,000 gallons, or enough to cover 2,000,000 acres of land with water to a depth of one foot. The work on the dam was started in the spring of 1911, and more than one thousand workmen have been employed on the construction ever since that time. When the project is finally corn- pleted 110,000 acres of land in New Mexico, 45,000 acres in Texas and 25.000 acres in old Mexico will be irrigated. Five hundred and fifty thou- sand cubic yards of solid masonry will have been put in place. This masonry forms a mass, which. If placed on a tract of land of the dimensions of an ordinary city block, would cover the tract to a height equal to that of a 13 story building. This masonry has been placed at the rate of 1,225 cubic yards daily. All the gates of the dam have been put in place and the water in the reservoir stands at 37 feet above the old river bed. When it is filled it will have an average depth of approximately 66 feet. The Elephant Butte darn project far surpasses in magnitude the Assuan dam on the Nile in Egypt, which has in the past been regarded as the climax of possibilities in irrigation. As a matter of actual figures, the Nile darn holds only half as much water as will be contained back of Elephant Butte dant. The dam itself is 1,200 feet long and will be 304 feet high at the highest point. A permanent road- way 16 feet high is being constructed on top. The dam gradually widens to the base, forming a con- crete foundation, against which the raging torrents from the streams of the Rocky mountains will beat for centuries without ef- fect. In the construction of the reservoir it was nec- essary to wipe out three small towns; and although the population was not large, the property values. which were made good by the government, repre- sented in the aggregate a considerable sum. Another town sprang up for the army of workmen. A railroad 15 miles long was built to haul material to the place where the dam was erected. In fact. the preliminary work was not a small part of the undertaking. Plants for the manufacture of cement, buildings for the housing of the workmen, a store, power station. transmission lines and a great embankment at a gap in the hills northwest of the darn proper had to be provided. Construction of main flumes, cofferdams. exca- vation in the river bed and the building of roads were atneng the preliminary tasks presented to the erTgineers. The cost, with the exception of $1,000,000, v.all eventually be Paid back into the government reclaination fund by land owners who will benefit by the dam, and will again be Act' . by the government for reclamation work in some - other section of the country. The $1,000,000 was appropriated outright and is being used for that portion of tho work which will benefit farmers in old Mexico. The appro- priation was made to furnish this water in set- tlement of several million dollars in claims which the Mexican government had presented to the United States for damages to land on the Mexican side, as a result of the water from the river be- ing used in small irrigation . projects on the American side, thus robbing Mexican farmers of water which naturally would have gone to them. Something of what is to be expected as a re- sult of the work is demonstrated by the small tracts that have been irrigated by private irriga- tion systems. The great dam will connect two division dams already completed. One of these, at Leesburg, waters 25,000 acres in what is known as the rich Mesilla valley. It has been wonder- fully productive. Farmers in this section have received a profit of $600 an acre from truck in a single year. At other points along the Rio Grande. In both Texas and New Mexico. small (Innis have brought tracts of land under irrigation and made it possible to raise bounteous crops. The same fertility will be found on the 155.000 Beret; around the new tiani in New Mexico and Texas. Great valleys which have hitherto pro- duced only during the infrequent years that na- ture was kind enough to send inure than the average rainfall, will be reached by the water from the irrigation canals and large yields will be assured. The statement that the reservoir will hold three years' flow of the Rio Grande river shows the greatness of the project. The Rio Grande is one of the longest rivers in the United States. It forme far up in Colorado and is fed by rivers and streams extending much farther An the north. It flows through a portion of Colorado. across New Mexico and forms the border between Texas and Mexico, finally reaching the Gull Extensive irrigation from the river without the aid of a great dam and reservoir is impossible, because of the rapidity with which the stream changes from a raging torrent to a bed of dry sand. With the completion of the dam and other irri- gation projects which will follow a great future for New Mexico is assured. New Mexico Iles in the heart of the arid section of America. She has 122,460 square miles of broad plains, rugged mountains, sage brush de torts; greater in extent than all New England, With New York and New RAM .5. GOVERNMENT ENGINEERS HAVE JUST FINISHED DAM THAT WILL TURN 160 SQUARE MILES OF DESERT INTO FE - FARMS IN SOUTHWEST. - 01.///YO 77 , 4 1- //7W.C/KI/7,fr - O, .7712 - A/c2/e,er Jersey thrown about 500,000. So many generations ago that no records are left, a mighty civilization is said to have flour- ished in this territory. When Coronado sailed up the Rio Grande. Indians were leading the waters of the river over their fields and blossoming gar- dens. But with the coming of civilization, led by the Spaniards. who sought only gold, the ancient irrigation system was abandoned, and for many generations this land which will now be made fertile was left idle. in...but with a population of only ELL - PRA/Yr BUTTE DAM AL/70.37 - COIYPLE7210 When New Mexico be- came a part of the United States fully one-third of its area was included In Mexican and Spanish land grants, which for years afterward were uncon- firmed and therefore paid no taxes. and were hot available to settlers. The Indians and their Mexican neighbors had been irri- gating their few crops through ditches construct- ed hundreds of years be- fore. Little more than a quar- ter of a century ago, with the arrival of a rail- road. new settlers began the section and modern irrigation 8}13 - (ems were first thought of. The ditches these farmers made soon decreased the water supply in the Rio Grande. so that further development was impossible unless storage water was provided. This resulted in many of the old ditches being abandoned and thousands of acres were left to parch till the coming of Uncle Sam with his en- gineers, whose work will turn the arid desert into fertile fields, which will again be green with crops, as they were centuries ago, before the white man invaded the territory. to inhabit A Military Surgeon's Experience in Berlin By PROF. CARL LUDWIG SCHLEICH. They who return from the field of battle are changed men, with a peculiar expression of the face which has become characteristic of those who are fighting for their country. Though there is a uniformity of desire to serve the fatherland fur- ther after as speedy a recovery as may be pos- sible. on the features of all these members of the giant organism lies the stamp of the horrors of war which they have witnessed, and this expres- sion is in direct relation to the culture of the Notwithstanding their iron purpose to return when their injuries shall have healed. these fight- ers are all, psychologically speaking, not quite intact. A tragic look in the deep-set eyes, an al- most stony rigidity of face are characteristic, es- pecially of the officers wino come under observa- tion. It seems as if all tl.e horrors of conflict had impressed themselves upon the vision and had given an expression first of astonishment at (ho enormitiee of destruction witnessed. Then grad- ually as the eyes became weary and accustomed to the sights of slatigater they mirrored the full picture of the horrible. This condition is followed by one of uncanny calm and fixity of expression, which, viselike, re- tains its demoniac hold upon the face, causing the eyes to sink deeper into the head, to become dimmed and the lower lid marked with the shadow and weariness within. The eyes lie deep in their bony sockets AS in those suffering from insomnia or those who have been deaply touched by life's miseries. This expression of the face we find even where the Individual returns to his home uninjured. Under solicitous care the rigidity and look of distress disappear in the course of a few weeks. but on their arrival from the field these men are all at changed—as though they had learned to shudder and no longer knew the unrestraint of joyous laughter They have seen the Gorgon's head. This changed expression of the face, this deadly serious look, that aging of the features In a short period of time is well known to rela- tives and friends. It is the expression of a con- dition which the technical physician character- izes as chronic shcck of tine syntpathetie system. expressed particularly in the arteries The effect of this is marked not alone on the pulse, but also on the heart itself. Under the conatant impulse of its contracting muscle the heart becomes dilated and hypertrophied. This physical condition results In that psychic uarest which makes life seem unattractive and gray, and the future veiled in leaden mists and with- out hope, while all the time the recent past is lived over in the mind and seems like an unreal, not quite tangible dream. Insomnia is the worst of the psychic dis- turbances that follow In the wake of the heart condition. and It may assume a severe form which cannot be alleviated by the known reme- dies. These half -sick people lie awake at night racked by their memories. staring with open eyes into the dark. They will hear the rattle and shriek of artillery, the crash of the machine guns and an echo of imminent danger: these memories will seem to them as the flight of the iron birds of destiny. We have no sharply defined psychosis of war with constantly characteristic symptoms. The occasion of war may serve to develop the laten*. predispositions of mental derangement, and in this a habitual Misuse of alcohol may play a con eiderable role, but true psychic disturbances, as such, have their roots further bark. In other words, it is the faint indication of psychic ab- normality which is brought to rapid development through war, but war in itself does not develop a symptom complex of its own or a true psy- chosis. Sonic unusual instances of hysteria have come under observation. patients in whom functional derangements were effected by purely psychic means. Olio is the case of a corporal of an ex- citable, wild and unrestraiped disposition. Ile came to the hospital shot through both shoulders and with profuse inflammation of the shoulder joints. Af'er four months he was al- most restored to health and was amusing himself by playing upon his mouth harmonica. the child- ish and individual musical instrument of the army Opposite to him in the hospital lay a soldier suffering from the effects or a shot through the head. with stupor and violent convul- Ri011e The indications for a cranial operation were being discussed. and the remark was made. \It may he a case of tetFilas.\ It proved not to be tetanus and the spasms were relieved by the removal of a bone splinter, which resulted In progressive recovery. But his neighbor. the corporal with healed shot wounds in the arms, after three days developed typical symptoms of tetanue, without fever. The manifestations continued for several weeks and disappeared finally under suggestion. on the emphatic assurance that no tetanus was present. —New York Bun. The Demi-Season Blouse 411.Mmir\ Now is the demi-season of our discon- tent—as the Poet did not say—when there is nothing new in blouses for winter wear and nothing certain about those for spring. But she who finds herself compelled to add to her sup- ply may be quite certain of one thing, and that is that her new blouses are still to be of sheer materials. With the incoming of each season for at least three, blouses have been growing more and more diaphanous. It is difficult now to see how they can become more airy, but impossible to believe that they will become less BO. Georgette crepe, chiffon, and other sheer fabrics, not forgetting to count In laces. are to be relied upon for the present, and uncertainty will soon be a thing of the past. Among models now displayed color Is an element to be recokoned with. Blouses of wash silks. including crepe and chiffon, are shown in light colors. with pink, flesh, maize, and gray lead- ing, and rose color well liked. Two- color combinations are popular. ed- pecially where gray is one of them. The employment of two fabrics in tho body of one blouse makes opportunity for color contrast, and there are many blouses of chiffon joined to taffeta or crepe or other material by hemstitch- ing. For traveling or general wear blouses of chiffon in the darker colors show overlays of ribbon or taffeta silk in the same color. Chiffon in plaids, like those in heavier silks, is very effectively combined with plain silk for utility blouses, and hem- stitching is an ever-present means of decorative sewing, when they are joined. A blouse of flesh -colored crepe is shown in the picture, having small figures embroidered at each side of the front. When Thoughts Turn to Ribbons Only Christmastime reveals just how many fascinating feminine be- longings are brought to the light of day, and the delight of everybody, when thoughts turn to ribbons. It seems that women love to work with them and are inspired to fashion for themselves and for their homes and their friends all sorts of alluringly pretty things. Only three of the innumerable nov- elties made of ribbon for the holi- day season are pictured here. Rib- bon bags, as usual, held first place and ranged from the tiny flowerlike sachet to the capacious and splendid opera bag. A pretty \vanity\ bag is shown here, made of a light blue printed rib- bon with a small rose and foliage de- sign scattered over its surface. It is lined with plain satin in pink and is made of four lengths of ribbons. These lengths are rounded at one end and only the straight edges are sewed together. The bottom of the bag is made of a little oblong mirror, in- cased in the pink satin. with the mir- ror side out. Within the hag are a little powder box and puff and any other of the complexion aids which are required. The bag is closed by drawstrings of narrow satin ribbon finished with Small bows at each side. IN'hen the opening is drawn up the rounded ends of ribbon have the appearance of tlower petals and the top becomes a blossom. A small circular pincushion Is shown below the bag, made by Phir- ring plain satin ribbon over fine wires to cover a small circular foundation. It Is suspended by a narrow ribbon hanger ana finished with little ro- settes. Black pins with round heads add to its decoration, and three small chiffon roses are grouped at the cen- ter. They may be scented. A pretty boudoir cap of plain wide satin ribbon and a fine net lace is shaped to the head by shirrings over cord. It is trimmed with a crushed band of the ribbon with bows at the Front and buckles covered with little ribbon roses in several colors. At tine back loops and ends of narrow satin ribbon match the cap in shade. Old Styles in Vogue. Just at this moment we are revel- ing in styles of days gone by. and happily there seems to be no attempt to revive the bizarre attire once af- fected by the leaders of fashion. The predominance of old-time styles is most obvious where dress acces- sories are concerned. Neckwear, gloves, yells. handkerchiefs. lingerie and footwear all possess the alluring charm of the days of romance. \Prom collars to pantalettes, - fash- ion clothes us in the dainty garments of an age gone by. Good Idea for Housewives. Turn the cold water into the sink while draining odorous vegetables or drain into a pan of cold water This condenses the steam which otherwise would rifle and fill the room land in ninny cases the house) with the strong odor. It also leesens the danger of be- ing burned.—Woman's Home Compan- ion. 4. fr•

Geyser Judith Basin Times (Geyser, Mont.), 07 Jan. 1916, located at <>, image provided by MONTANA NEWSPAPERS, Montana Historical Society, Helena, Montana.