The River Press (Fort Benton, Mont.) 1880-current, September 11, 1889, Image 1

What is this?
Optical character recognition (OCR) is an automated process that converts a digital image containing numbers and letters into computer-readable numbers and letters. The search engine used on this web site searches OCR-generated text for the word or phrase you are looking for. Please note that OCR is not 100 percent accurate. If the original image is blurry, has extraneous marks, or contains ornate font styles or very small text, the OCR process will produce nonsense characters, extraneous spaces, and other errors, such as those you may see on this page. In addition, the OCR process cannot interpret images and may ignore them or render them as strings of nonsense characters. Despite these drawbacks, OCR remains a powerful tool for making newspaper pages accessible by searching.
×

St• benr tie me 4 car, hair - to v., 11, M. Vol. IX. THE RIVER P Fort Benton, Montana, Wednesday, September 11, 1889. CHICAGO'S BIG FOUR. Th e :ellatorial Committee Investigating the Great Beef Combine -Armour Won't Appear Before it. Ciiiceeo, September 3. ---The dignity of Chicago's widely advertised packers and dressed beef merchants struck the mem- bers of the senatorial committee rather forcibly this morning. Ashley C. Held - well, an employe of the Drovers' Journal, said in reply to a question by Senator Farwell, that his estimate showed that the receipts of cattle at Chicago during the last eight months had been the iargeet in the world, either at this or any other market. \Have you the figures\ asked Ile Far- well. -Yes, sir. They are 297,000 bead of cattle.\ -Can you tell from what part of the country these cattle came.\ About 2.5eXf0 were from Texas; 11,000 were from Montana, Wyoming and the northwest, and the remainder from the central states, Illinois being in the lead.\ \Can you give any reason why the St. Louis trade should not be increasing?\ -I am unable to state, unless it be on account of the fact that St. Louis has a reputation for being a little slower than Kansas City and Omaha in getting busi- ness. . \How has the business kept up at Kan- sas Cite, St. Louis and Omaha?\ -At Kaneaa City and Omaha the trade has steadily increased, but at St. Louis the business has barely held its own.\ This brought Senator Vest to his feet n an instant. He said: \Did you ever -leer of the ‘eveners combination?\ The witness admitted that he had 80111f1 twelve years ago. Senator Vest -Well, did you not hear that a clique of Chicago shippers made a combination with some of the railroads by which chea er rates were obtained ilk from Chicago ana, that by this the St. Louis business was ruined?\ The witness had heard some talk of such things. The senator pressed him harder and brought in the names of Mor- ris, Nelson & Allerton and some others as having been parties to the \eveners\ com- bination. The examination over a recess until 2 o'clock was taken. Before ad- jourreing, however, Senator Vest made a statement. He wanted to let the people know the exact object and purpose of the senatorial committee. He alluded to the fact that Secretary Williams, of the stock yards, was to have been present this morning with a list of the stockholders of the company, but that he disobeyed the order of the senators. \I do not know how the other members of the committee feel about it,\.he said, -but I for one am not willing to close this examination here until I have learned all there is in this meat question.\ Then he read a list of names. Said he: 'This committee does not desire any trouble with any of these gentlemen whom it has summoned to ap- pear on examination, but these men are itrectly interested in the result of the ;leering, and it is from them we can ob- tain our evidence. I will say now they must be here. There is no way out of it.\ The committee adjourned and word was sent to Messrs. Armour, Swift et al. that they must obey the senatorial summons. Charles E. Ingersoll was the first wit- ness in the afternoon. He said that when he first went into the dressed beef busi- ness there was twice the quantity of dressed beef sold to eastern buyers than there is now. Under the old system there .'.as a great deal more competition. Out .if a 1,200 pound steer witness believed e75 pounds of good beef could be obtain- ed. That class of beef eould bring from 1'4 to 4 cents a pound. - When in the last ten years were cattle the highest?\ \In 1882. They commenced going up n 1881, and reached high water mark in June, 1882. A rapid decrease began in 1885, went lower in 1886 and reached the letvest figure in 1887. In 1888 there was a Slight improvement in the summer months, but that was only for the best irade of cattle.\ \Now said Senator Vest,\ it has peen said here that the enormous fall in the Price of cattle in 1882 was by overprodUC- U°13, but I see that since 1882 there has been a very marked decrease in the pro- duction and still the price went down - hoe do you account for that?\ \I hardly know how to account for it,\ influence to secure the attendance of Messrs. Armour, Morris and others with- out attachments. FUN AHEAD. The New York Herald Goes After the Great Falls Water Power & Tow nsite Co. NEW YORK, September G. -The Herald to-day devotes a great deal of space to an article under the heading \Land Grab- bing in Montana\ filled with tales about the Great Falls Water Power Sr, Townsite Co. It charges the company with many crimes and undertakes to prove the Un- ited States has been swindled. The fol- lowing are some of the opening paragraph \The development of northern Montana - and the constructioil of the Manitoba rail- way made it possible, by offering the in- ducement of rapid settlement, for an as- sortment of land sharks under the guise of the Great Falls Water Power Jr Town - site company to compass some outrageous stealing, and combine business with the pleasure of tilling their pockets at not on- ly the expense of the United States but their fellow men whom they procecled to rob with impunity and without fear. En- joying the patronage of the railway offi- cials as well as the great natural advan- tages, the town of Great Falls presented ; unusual attraction for old and young do-. siring to locate in the west. It is thou claimed that the company us- ed straw wen to prove up claims and that ; it resorted to every possible means to pre- vent other people from acquiring title to land e in the immediate vicinity, even us- ing threats of violence, and by this means intimidated every body who wanted to obtain lands. The agents of the govern- ment, it is said, were fixed to report that the lands were obtained properly. Sever- al men who took up land in the Vicinity are quoted as being hired by the company and on refusing to relinquish for what the company offered were threatened with violenoe, .but these statements do not show any more fraud on the part of the company than of those who took the land being employed by the company so to do. The story has a great many statements charging criminal acts upon individual members of the company which may in- volve the paper in a libel suit. THE CHAIN COMPLETED. Inspector Byrnes Has the Hamilton Case Ready for Action. NEW YORK, September G. --inspector Byrnes' chain of evidence against the Robert Ray Hamilton conspirators is now completed, the last link in the shape of the identification of the ten dollar baby by the midwife who sold it having been welded to it to -day. Joshua Mann told the inspector to -day that Mrs. Hamilton I had showed him the will her husband had made in her favor. It provided in the event of his death that all his money, family jewelry and plate should go to her and the child, and she was to be the cus- todian of the child till she became of age. Ray once fell from his horse and broke his leg. She remarked to Joshua, \He may fall again and break his neck, and then, Joshua, I will marry you.\ To the mind of the inspector this indi- cates that Eva was not married to Mann. The inspector will not give the name of the mother of the bogus Hamilton baby. He says she is and was when the child was born a married woman moving in good society. Democratic Clubs. HELENA, September 4. -The young re- publicans of Helena have a club which numbers 64. The young democrats of Heleaa have a club which numbers 364. There will be a Scandinavian democratic club formed to -night. One hundred names have been secured. \Organization is victory,\ remarked a gentleman from Tammany hall last night, \and the demo- crats are organizing.\ JUDGE TERRY'S SLAYER. Deputy Marshal Nagle Seeks to Regain Ills Liberty. Sax FRANCISCO, September 3. -The ha- beas corpus eproceedings in the case of Deputy United States Marshal David Na- gle were begun to -day. Testimony was given showing that Terry had threatened to kill Justice Field. It was also testi- fied that Mr. and Mrs. Terry were vio- lent persons, and had threatened harm 'salted the witness. After a few more to Judge Sawyer as well as to Justice questions the witness was allowed to go.. Joseph Field, and that Terry had told Marshal Eastbourn, a stuck yards co Frank that he would get even with Field D ' i s'slon man, said he saw a very marked for deciding against him. The facts of change in the market of late years. While an assault upon Judge Sawyer in a rail- V ls supply of stock increased the number road car a year ago by Mrs. Terry were buyers showed no proportionate in- crease. ; 4110 e do you account for the fact that _ Q . ° number of buyers have not increased Ilth the supply of material?\ asked the chairm en. :`..! attribute it to the dressed beef men.\ hle absence of prominent dressed beef I hii*r s who had been summoned very \Sib y irritated Senator Vest. Finally re- I be e w _ un dersto o d as taken until to -morrow and it is Senator Farwell will use his also given. The woman pulled the judge's hair while Terry sat opposite ready to take action if Sawyer should resent the action, It was shown that Terry had boasted of always carrying a knife. A re- porter testified that Mrs. Terry once told him that she would probably kill Judge Field some day. _The Montana Stockman. Subscribe for this valuable monthly Price, i1.50 per annum. SENTIMENTS OF A SOLDIER. General Gordon's Patriotic Address to Ex - Confederates. ATLANTA, September 5. -In his address to the United Confederate Veterans' asso- ciation on the occasion of his accepting the command, Gen. John B. Gordon allud- ed to the objects of the organization, namely to establish social literary and benevolent ties among those who had shared dangers and sacrifices, no political or religious questions being permitted tot enter. It was en:obling for a people,con tinned the general, to cherish the memory of its heroic past, whether crowned with 1 success or consecrated with defeat. The ; republic has no class of defendee3 more 1true and devoted than the EX SOLDIERS OF THE SOUTH l and their worthy descendants. Whether lor not the southern people may ever hope I to witness another civilization which ; shall equal that which begun with their I . Washington and ended with their Lee, it ; is certain that devotion to their glorious past is the surest guaranty of future uni- ty and the strongest claim they can pre- sent to the confidence and respect of oth- er sections. The organization will trans mute the past glories of the dead Confed- eracy into inspirations for future service to the living republic. It will gather as witnesses for history the facts which shall doom falsehood to die that truth may live. It will cultivate national as well as southern fraternity. It will spread the serftiment which I would write on the grave of every soldier on either side: \Here lies a hero, a martyr to the right as his conscience conceived it.\ GIVE Us STATEHOOD. ....•••••••••••••••1* Such is the t ry That Goes up from New Mexico. SANTA FE, September 5. -The constitu- tional convention was organized at noon in Representative hall. Fifty-three dele- gates were present out of a total member- ship of seventy -throe. It was announced that several absent members would arrive to -night. Judge Trimble of Bernalillo county was elected temporary chairman, and J. Francisco Chavez of Valencia county permanent chairman. Both made enthusiastic speeches favoring statehood. The various methods of getting at the • business in hand were discussed, and a commitee from each county was appoint- ed to consider the three separate lists of committees on the various subjects which it proposed to incorporate in the consti- tution. All the counties in New Mexico are represented except Taos. The conven- tion is about equally divided between the Spanish and English-speaking people, and in appearance is a good-looking repre- sentative body. The sentiment appears to be in favor of a constitution voicing the most progressive ideas of the age. Late this evening the general committee reported in favor of selecting eleven standing committees to be appointed by the chair on the subjects to be embraced in the constitution. TEMPERANCE REPUBLICANS. Platform Outlined by a Small Gathering of Bay State, Citizens. BOSTON, September 4. -About 100 gen- tlemen responded to the call issued by Henry H. Faxon for a meeting yesterday, the purpose being as stated in the call to support none but temperanoe republicans in the approaching campaign, and to op- pose the candidacy of J. 0. A. Brackett, lieutenant governor, for any official posi- tion. It was an exclusive conference. The platform sets out the following points: 1st. The necessity of speedy organiza- tion on the part of temperance republi- cans. 2d. That the principle of prohibition is good policy. 3d. That the republican party is in danger of surrendering to the corrupting influence of the liquor traffic. 4th. That the state officers should be eirrnest temperance workers with positive temperance records. 5th. That the cause of the demand for more jails should be destroyed. 6th. That the liquor traffic doubles our taxes. 7th. That the governor should snow to the people the items comprising taxation. 8th. That it is our duty to organize in moral and political work for prohibition. A NICE PLUM. A St. Paul Hamm Draws a Prize in London. ST. PAUL, September 7. -Private tele- grams leceived in St. Paul to -day say that the sale of Hamm's brewery and other brewery interests in this city was con- summated in London yesterday. The purchase includes the Qualles, Banholzer and Stahlman's brewery plants. The sale to the English syndicate was conducted personally by Alderman Hamm, who is now in London. The price paid for the latter's interest is in the neighborhood of $500,000. The terms are one-half cash, the balance to be taken by Mr. Hamm in stock in the new concern. It is under- stood that Mr. Hamm is to be the mana- ger of the syndicate at a salary of from $7,000 to $10,000 a year. The scope of the scheme is of the greatest magnitude, hav- ing in view the purchase and control of all the large breweries in the northwest. A SMOOTH ONE. Sam Schwab Taken In on His Own Cord Wood. HELENA, September 7. --About ten days ago a flashily dressed young man walked into the Cosmopolitan hotel office and with a flourish signed \Geo. Johnson, Spokane Falls.\ The clerk sized him up as . being no good and gave him a room on the fourth story. Johnson said he was here for the purpose of securing plans for a variety theatre building at Spokane Falls. Two days went by. On the third Mr. Johnson took his valise and STARTED TO GO OUT. He was stopped, but he said he would. return in a few minutes and settle his bill. He was invited to leave his valise as a guaranty of . good faith. This he re- luctantly did. Johnson has not been seen for a week and yesterday it was concluded he would not come back. The leather valise was opened by the clerk, who was thunderstruck to find it carefully filled with neatly cut blocks of cord wood. \WELL THAT TAKES THE CAKE,\ said the proprietor, Sam Schwab. \I have heard of trunks and valises being filled with stones and bricks and old clothes, but that's the first time.I ever saw cord wood in a valise, and the worst of the whole business is that it is my own wood.\ POSTAL CLERKS STRIKE. The Result of Wanamaker's Wretched Ad- ministration of the Post Office Depart- ment. --- SPOKANE FALLS, September 4. -Eight postal clerks employed in the post office here served a written notice to Postmas- ter Peel to -day, stating that unless their salaries were properly adjusted within forty-eight hours from the time of serv- ing the notice, they intended to walk out of the office. Postmaster Peel believes they intend to quit unless their demand is complied with. In that event he will turn the office over to his bondsmen and do the best he can under the circum- stances. The salaries are based upon the revenue of a population that has greatly increas- ed and is inadequate. The clerks receive only about $55 a month. The postmas- ter has asked the department for aid and asked that inspection be made and prop- er adjustment of salaries be made, but has received no reply. Citizens are anx- ious that immediate adjustment of diffi- culty be made. Maine Forest Fires. NARCEBORO, Me., September 9. -East- ern Maine is suffering from one of the se- verest drouths ever known. Forest fires have been started in the Maine and New Brunswick forests, and on the St. Johns river the situation is especially serious. The fire extends over several counties al- ready. The timber lands have been dam- aged to the extent of hundreds of thou- sands of dollars. Several towns are seri- ously threatened. SIOUX ARE EXCITED. They Threaten to Make it Warm for Sitting . Bull. BISMARCK, Dak„ September 8. -The ex citement at Standing Rock agency is in- creasing every day, and old Sitting Bull stands in imminent danger of losing his life, as the Indians believe he was instru- mental in causing the sickness of John Grass, the chief justice of the Sioux tribe. Sitting Bull's old time followers, number- ing about twenty, are upholding him, and sturdily deny having anything to do with John Grass' ailment. There is but - little hope of his recovery. John Grass' friends are becoming so threatening that Sitting Bull will probably have to be locked up in the guard house to shield him from bodily harm. Campaign Documents. WASHINGTON September 9. -Campaign documents fur distribution in the new states are being issued almest as exten- sively as they might be in a presidential election. An immense edition of Toole's speech on the admission of the new states in the house is being printed here and sent to Montana. Representative Cox's speech and other documents that give the position of the democrats on the admis- sion question are being circulated. Congressman Cox Dying. NEW YORK, September 9. -An evening ; paper says Congressman S. S. Cox is dy- ing. Four days ago he was confined to ; his bed by an attack of malarial fever.' This rapidly developed into acute pneu- monia which had defied the best medical skill. Yesterday his physicians gave up all hopes. At 10 o'clock to-night Cox's condition was unchanged. His doctor says the next twelve hours will decide the case. JOHN L 'S GALL. He Wants to Run for Congress on the Demo- cratic Ticket in a Boston District. NEW YORK, September 7. -The Sun this afternoon publishes a letter from John L. Sullivan in which he announces his intention of running for congress on the democratic ticket. It is his ambition to represent the Boston district. He states with such a high ambition he trusts he will in future make hinlife what it ought to be. Sullivan does not doubt his 4ualifica- tions, as he says in concluding that he will have no trouble getting a hearing in congress or in making congressmen listen to what he says. In an interveiw regarding his proposal to stand for congress, Sullivan said: \You know of the misfortune I have just had in the loss of my mother. I don't want to talk about it much. I can only say I do not feel like living the life I have up to now. You know how people \abuse me and if I make a good resolution my ene- mies laugh at it, while my friends try to get me to break it. But I will show them what I mean to do without saying much about it. In the first place, I shall give up boxing, which has occupied all my time so far. It is an honorable calling, and does good, but as a congressman or candidate for congress, I, of course, can- not continue to be a professional pugilist. My reputation is made. The cropping tip of new fighters can't injure it, and those challenges can't worry me. I shall go through with my six weeks' exhibi- tion and put my money away carefully and attend to my political, career exclu- sively. Now that my mother is dead there is no one depending upon me but my father, and he is well cared for. He has six houses in his own name, which will keep him in comfort to the end of his days. I have brought Jim with me from Boston, because I can't leave him alone to worry about my mother's death. While Sullivan was talking of his fu- ture political aspirations a friend of his now in congress dropped in to see him to express sympathy at his mother's death and to say he would do all he could to help him out of his trouble down south. After many postponements and delays the long -heralded reception to John L. Sullivan took place in the academy of music to.night. Fourteenth street from Third to Fourth avenues was filled with a motley crowd of $illivan admirers, and when the champion's carriage appeared it was almost impossible for the driver to bring it to the curbstone. When at last the champion alighted the cheering was tremendous. The audience in the acade- my was not nearly as large as had been expected. Sullivan appeared late in the evening. He had lost none of his old time grace and quickness, and never ap- peared to better advantage than in his flout with Mike Cleary. His appearance on the stage was the signal for tremen- dous applause which lasted for fully ten minutes. The big fellow stepped to the footlights and made one of his character- istic speeches. He said: \Ladies and gentlemen -I do not know what to say to you. r am at present suffering from a sad affliction, the loss of my mother; but I wish to thank the public, for their kindness to me. They always have been kind, and I never shall forget it. I beg to remain your humble servant.\ Sullivan then turned to shake hands with Cleary and the audience was treated to a fine exhibi- tion of scientific boxing. _ A FOOL,S FEAT. Steve Brodie Goes Over Horse Shoe Falls in a Rubber Suit. CLIFTON, Ontario, September 7. -Steve Brodie went over Horseshoe falls this morning in a rubber suit. He was picked ;up below the falls in an unconscious con- dition and taken to Clifton. Ile recover- ed consciousness not long after and an examination showed he was not seriously injured. Brodie, with several friends and news- paper correspondents, arrived last night. They left the hotel at 4 o'clock this morn- ing and went to a point 200 feet above the fans. Brodie then stripped, had his body padded with cotton batting, and then put on a rubber suit which was inflated fif- ty-two inches around the waist and sev- euty-five inches around the chest. The head gear was also inflated, whilp two steel bands protected the body. At 5:30 Brodie, with a paddle, entered the water, caught the current, waved the paddle and a few seconds later was shot over the center of Horseshoe falls, and luckily was shot with lightning rapidity over the outside of one of the falling vol- umes of water and was quickly lost in the mist and foam. He was buried from view nearly two minutes, when he appeared on the surface and was carried toward the American shore. Then he was suddenly hurried tows, d the Canadian shore where his friend, John Ledger, had ropes ready to draw him ircen Lae water. Ledger was stripped bud seam out 20u feet with a rope fastened to his waist, te l leile W. E. Harding held the other end on No. 46. shore. Ledger,. after several attempts, reached Brodie, fastened the rope to the iron band around his waist and then swam ashore and assisted in pulling the daring swimmer ashore. On Brodie's being lift3d on the rocky shore, he was quickly stripped, brandy was poured in small quantity on his tem- ple, while he was rubbed and chafed; but he was insensible, and blood oozed from his le se and 'ears, probably from the shock of concussion. For twenty min- utes Brodie lay stiil till ammonia was ap- plied to his nostrils, and he began to shir er and gesticulate with his hands. He gradually recovered consciousness and then it was found his injurious were not serious. He expects to be able to go to New York to -morrow. In describing his experience Brodie says after he entered the river he awak- ened and would have given anything in the world if he could have reached the shore. He attempted to get ashore by . using his paddles, when the swift current turned him back and turned his feet to- ward the brink of the cataract. When he saw that it was impossible to get- out he felt like a man that was to meet death. ; Just as he came to the brink of the precipice he became unconscious through fright and remained so tine: tre struck the water When he . was temporarily ! brought, to by the force with , which lie struck the water. Then he again tost ; consciousness and knew no more until he I I ! found himself lying on his rubber suit at ; the water's edge. There is no doubt that Brodie successfully went over the falls. BRODIE ARRESTED. NIAGARA FALLS, September 7.-- ( 'bier McDowell of the Ontario police arrested Brodie at Grand Trunk station, this af- ternoon as he was about to take the 4 p. m. train for New York. He is charged with attempting suicide by going ovie the falls this morning. Washington Democratic Convention. ELLENSBURG, W. T., September 9. --The democratic state convention met to -day. S. C. Wallace, of Tacoma, was made tem- porary chairman. On assembling in the afternoon James H. Davis, of Seattle was made permanent chairman. To -night the following nominations were made: Lieut. governor, M. H. Platter, of Whitman; sec- retary of state, W. S. Wittlesee, of Port Townsend; treasurer, Col. Kouffman, of Tacoma % attorney general, H. J. Snively, of Yakima; superintendent of public in struction; J. R. Morgan, of Ellensburg; commissioner of public lands, J. Staylor, Presidential Appointments, WASHINGTON, September 9. -The presi- dent to -night made the following ap- pointments: George W. Lyon, of New' York city, to be surveyor of customs for the port of New York; Theodore B. Wil- lis, of Brooklyn, to be naval officer of cus- toms in the district of New York; Ernest Nathan, to be collector of internal revenue for the first district of New York. A Tale of Fortune Achieved by Daring. Ticket No. 87,835 drew the first capita: prize of $300,000 in the 331st grand draw- ing, August 13th, 1889, in the Louisiana State Lottery. It was sold in fractionit parts of twentieths at $1.00 each sent to M. A. Dauphin, New Orleans, La. Two to a depositor Union National bank, New Orleans, La., two to Chas. Meinhardt, St. Louis, Mo., through the Franklin Bank of St. Louis; two to Jno. W. O'Neal and P. O. Winterley, through First Nationa:. bank of Corsicans, Texas; one to Mrs. Florence M. Roche, care of J. B. Fernan- dez, Savannah, Ga.; one to Merchants National bank of Savannah, Ga.; one to Lafayette bank of St. Louis, Mo.; one to Fourth National bank St. Louis, Mo.. two to Anglo-Californian bank, San Frit- cisco, Cal., etc., etc. Ticket No, 85,13e drew the second capital prize to $100,000. also sold in;fractional twentieths at $1.00 each, two to Jas. H. Raymond & Co., Austin, Texas; two to J. E. St. Amaud, Gunderson, Mont.; two to Alexander County National bank of Cairo, Ill.; one to the People's National bank of Mobile, Ala.; one to First National bank of Mobile, Ala.; on to a party in Baltimore, Md., collected through the U. S. Express Co.; one to a correspondent at Havana, Cuba, through F. Esteqa, 5 Canal St., New Orleans, La., etc., etc. Ticket No. 75,353 drew the third capital prize of Vie000, also sold in fractional parts: two to a de positor New Orleans National bank, New Orleans, La.; one to the Traders' National bank, of Fort Worth, Texas; one to Mer- chants' National bank of Port Worth, Texas; one to A. E. Morales, 15 Obispo St., Havana, Cuba; one to Aug. Kaltmyer, 6th and Franklin Ayes., St. Louis, Mo.; one to H. R. Cohen, 357 Second Ave., New York City; one to Amelia Parten- heimer, 910 Monroe St., St. Louis, Mo.; one to Fred Greenwood, Norfolk, Va.; one to Chas. Weissleder, 802 Ninth Ave., New York City; one to G. W. Denby, Norfolk, Va., etc. The Mad grand drawing will take place at New Orleans, La. on Tues- day, October 15th, 1889, of which full in- formation will be given by M. A. Dauphin, New Orleans, La., on application.

The River Press (Fort Benton, Mont.), 11 Sept. 1889, located at <http://montananewspapers.org/lccn/sn85053157/1889-09-11/ed-1/seq-1/>, image provided by MONTANA NEWSPAPERS, Montana Historical Society, Helena, Montana.