The River Press (Fort Benton, Mont.) 1880-current, December 25, 1889, Image 1

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smaima.1 No. 9. ty is conducted by a blind ditch to one of the corraa; where it flows into and keeps tilled a large cistern, the surplus water being carried off by aeecond underground line of bores. The water is raised by a pump as it is needed. THE MAMMOTH slIEU is the feature of the place. It s 00 feet in length by 80 feet in width. The sides and ends are made of twelve inch boards set vertically And the whole covered with eorrugated sheet iron, resting upon sawed 'eel; rafters well braced and supported by a series of pillars or posts substantially set in the !ground. The vast building is well lighted by windows and is entered by a large sliding door upon each end and upon one side. The whole building or sheeloiucluding the roof, is painted red and although low is a rather imposing structure. Two side sl.eds, one :0(40 and the other 30e64 similarly built and covered complete the departments set aside -for the sheep. A combined stable and eranary 16:80, three rout houses, a sheering shed and chicken house are also built in the immediate vicinity elf the sheds. Two huielred and fifty tons of hey well stacked and in sweet condition steeds upon one side of the immense stied to be fed to the sheep as -occasion 4•666y require *everal corrals for holding esipanite bands of sheep and a obute for would suppose from its counting complete the outfit. noinenclatexe. a simple depreeeion of the need will cumfortably bowie surface or the ground, es rrounded by hills 5,000 SHEEP - : Jr ter reacting plateaus. It is the former ;This is the e -umber Mr. Patterson keeps bed of We ei Leeman river anti ext- ' 16 at the home - ranch. Nearly all are ewes from Highwood creek down below Arrow •wvhich are now being bred. Three miles creek wheeze it strikes the present chan- •below he -has another ranch where he net of the river. It, foetus .an irregular S., , ,4, :esps his meether band o(2.,%'. Here he in its course through the eatitern portion Wins a hay (veered shed 40x120‘feet and 75 of Choteate county aryl with alt its windekons of hay stacked ready for use. One ams is something over 100 mites in length. .herder attends to this band. It is always The former height of Me nI4itr8 and al - !.•Icept separate from the main band. The most vertical stretches of shale which :.one there this year will be shipped east eontined the stream is now reduced 'by next yeareted sold for mutton and its the tilling ep of the old rives channel by place supplied by weathers and piekings the washings of age e and Dew the Big and cullin,ge from the home hand. It re- S'a,g slows• only a sue -session of beautifui. quires seven or eight men the year round valleyis of varying width broken at every to attend tc the work of the ranch. The great 'bead of the old river course by a sheep areeheared in June by one of the !arge alkaline flat or by a lake whose wa- many sheep shearing crews which every ters are more or less impregnated with al- year come in the state from -Oregon and kalin salts. These lakes hone no visible California. The prudent mote grower law ei e „, of grain and ne ns about 500 heed of inleteor outlet. Some of them are formed h i s -cattle which feed and fatten upon tlened- by melting snows and spring rains and WM'. ER. AND SUMMER -RANG Es. eiacent ranges. Ire• up.before the winter :solstice, while: Mr. Patterson has his. During the slum - Others are doubtless replenished by un- NOT SO . mer and tall months his bands occupy SICK Been springs and retain their waters the 1 ranges some distanoe from the home whe Kaden Putting on year round. At every few .reiles a spring; ranch. At the approach of -winter they, Orr 159't.. of are driven. in and kept well in hand until - re fie 47(MAL WA.TEP His .Illt?inor gushes out from a high bluff or towering after shearing when they are again driven The Washington correspondent , Cf the to their summer ranges. Mr. Patterson 'flit. rem is Globe 3)emocrat telegraphs to diff of reeks and forms an ever living, has systematized his -business and every i that paper ir regard to Blaine's oandida, stream which after tiowicet a mile or two part is conducted with the regularity of 1 Oy for the presidency in 1892, that - \there lisappears. presumably in the deep gravel clock wock. His losses are reduced tol :a abundant torefrrmation for the infor- ehich Inured the bed of thenneient river. .. the minimum and the increase of hisermation preeiously sent regarding Mr. It is at one of these tine largoeprings where i flocks:armee:tended to the maximum se , Blaine's caridedaoy for 1892_ Some of the the magnificent sheet' ranch•cf far as they may be reduced or extended .secretary's friendie go so far as to empress .4011N F. PATTLESON -44 CO. THE RIVER PRESS. Fort Benton, Montana, Wednesday, iDecember ;25, 1889. MoDEL SHEEP RANCHES, N e ws and Obwer%ations Made at the Sheep orrals and Sheds of the Pattergon Brother*. neader did you ever visit a Montana sheep ranch whe•re the business of wool g rowing is conducted upon a plan in which the security and comfort and e ol ith of she are taken into considera- tion and where every irairmovement which extended experience, intimate knowledge of the business and humanity suggest, tuts been made withoest regard to labor and expenee? - If not and you desire to -see a refreshing (Soilage from the old time, slip shod methods of sheep raising and wool growing embrace the first op- portunity to via t tolee model sheep ranches of the Patterson terethers on the Big se e s dome 14: or 18 miles eastward from • Pert Benton. A Re v DP. Pass.s representative accepted a emit beside Mr. John F. Pat- erson behind his spanking teem of high steeping sorrels -end took a spin • eta to the latter's place on the Big 'Sag the oth- er day. Mr. Pattersou's ranch is. miles 'rem this city ard while the spirited half urethers to the noted laaniel B. • are cov- ering the dietance in the alleeted hour and a half we will skip ahead wi h the reader and take a look at the Big Sag. 'rue BIG sat: .s not, as many The great J. ORVILLE PATTERSON'S RANCH is three miles as the crow flies, but six or seven miles by the road from the home of John P. It is known as the Lost Lake sheep ranch, taking its name from the beautiful little body of water about a mile above the ranch buildings. The ranch, which comprises GOO acres of fine hay and agricultural lands, about all well fenced, was stocked in 1886 with 5,000 sheep. The buildings include a neat and comfortable two story house, a tine two- story stone stable 32x40, a root house, granary, and a huge shed 95x172, boarded and roofed and partitioned after the plan adopted by Mr. John F. Patterson in the 'construction of his own. Everything about the place indicates the presence of a level, orderly head that oversees and conducts the business of the ranch. Orville is quite a young man to be at the head of such an extensive establishment. but that he is equal to the responsibility is abundantly evidenced by the surround- ings. Here we found an excellently pre pared dinner of which most any good housewife would be proud. They have good cooks at those two sheep ranches, but They ',ear moustaches -the cooks, not the ranches. Some five -or six miles above Cris ranch, near the point where the Shonkin cuts its way across the Big Sag, is the great sheep ranch belonging to Mr. George D. Patterson, the chairman of the present board of county commissioners. Mr. Pat- terson is the pioneer wool grower of this portion of Montana, haring etarted in the business at his present location twelve years ago. He also keeps about 7,500 head. He has spent years in breeding a desirable class of sheep for his business and to this end he has annually imported the best breeds of Merinos and Shrop- shiree to be found in the east. This year he purchased an inaperted English -bred Shropshire yearling leuck, for which he paid 8200, and four imported yearling ewes, which cost hira $100 each. They are beauties and Wtrild be premium tate-- ars in any country. Mr. Patterson has a tine large residence upon his ranch arid all the necessary outbuildings to meet the demands of his besiness. He carries -on farming extensive4y, raising large qnarlti- •• under the range system of woo growing. • the belief tkat eke presideat knows and ,s located. And here we arrived on • : He thinks that no man can profitably e aeq --uiesces in the ;drift of things. 'These schedule ,tirue just as :the several banda, .handle more sheep than can do .reasona- i'friends say that while neither the preei- each in charge of a herder and his dog . bly well upon a winter •range of say ten,adent nor the secretary will openly plan erne in for the night flora the surround - *miles in diameter, the home ranch beingii dor Mr. Blaine's MC ruination., yet they will ng range. After taking a look over the .. in the center. This asea permits a band; i tboth view witheatisfactiou the , develop - anent of sentiment in that dieeceion. It ileauseaandenspecting several bunches to travel out five miles and backee.ch day.. if thoreughleted Shropshire and Merino No band can travel farther than this and keep in fair.Eesh and good heart And, both are .necessary te insure good' ilength of gala ong wool. Mr. Patterson's eeeperience goes to show that 7,500 sheep will consume.the range an the area above given and therefore he 'keeps his band down to thatemmber be annually mut- toning his old.ewes and weathers in. east- ern marketa. his expetnence also eads him to believe.Abet it is more profitatle to grniv medium line wool than any other. With this object in view he is mingling the blood of Shropshiree and Merinos 4.0 inner menet their emploaes_aa de the witk most flattering resulte. He uses tteTS011 brotJaers the linee of the steep something ovee bucks, ace -fourth pc re •rder have the very pleasant and sat- bredeethropshiree. and the rest thorough- bred .Merinos. He changes nis bucks rams that .were chewing the cad of con- :entment ire snug, coxy•guarters in a sec - :ion of the mammoth iron ..roofed shed ;hall appeared in the dim twilight like a 'nundlese . underground cavern, the pper bell rang and all hands repaired the hoiese a hundred yards .distant, here a meal .which would put to shame he spread found upon the table of many Montana hotel, was wadaeg the hungry tee'. And Light here we will say that if he owners of every sheep ranch , of the euntry ruake as bountiful provieion for aetory hreake.each day. Mr.. .Patterson as a very noinfortable two atory . frame came, welrf tarnished and kept as neat as pin. All it laoks to make it a litele tfly paradise for the good „looking, 'tir,g junior partner in the (lectern is -e presence of .countensueee any legitimate prominence A LOWIPG leiter the.l_ambing seeson does not exceed of Blaine which looks tc the close ideate - '104. after the many little thing*, which 14 or five per cent. Pe expects to reduce 1 ' of tihe secretary;s name with the ba(Htmlor, however erderly in his habite, ;the per;•‘.Wage of losses in future seasons. mos toeme and turn to the beet shaven 'Besides tits mammoth shed whie:h will be ue upon evhich the next campaign is 'e• The gentleman is young, indite- need during the lambing season for the pus, hinergetic and .:ntelligent but it protection of mother and kid at eight and • he has thus far evened the shafts lin storms, Mr. Patterson has built three the wieged little god and still views ' sod sheds eaeh. 30x53 feet with water tight Iafar the happiness lanknown anioag , roofing for use:during lambing. He also be a strong cardsof the re,publicans in tj rutherhood of bachehrs. It is hoped I ; propeses to have night watchmen to 1892. As the head of the waternational congress, the secretary will luxe much to do in adrising the republicans ,in congress about the necessary legislation tor the en- couragement of this trade, stid if the Mr. l'atterenn located his home ranch the Big Sag in 1882. It was then 'lawnas \Kentuck .Ioe's springs.\ The 'Ph comprises 720 acres upon which . e are five miles of fencing, The most it lies in a beautiful valleyrunaing east west and is hemmed in on one side by • taut% or cut banks and on the other gently rising hills. He has 100 acres llent farming lands fenced off of 4,10145 nears are under cultivation and 1 b e 'leaded to timothy another year. '• rest of the 100 acres will also be seed - to the same grass as soon as possible. . Place has an abundance of pure '1 Water of which a generous quanti- every two years Under less favorable conditions than ao w surround them 90 per cant. of his ewes have lambs of which he rawer about the same per nent. TR E CAI. LOBS will find his affinity in the near by and gather each mother and her drop - pod lamb and put them in small compartments hailt i and next to the wall of the great shed. This will avoid confusion .aniong the — trade develops as rapidly in response to : young mothers and insure their keeping governmental eneoursgement as it now their own. By thus protecting the lives of the young Mr. Patterson feels assured ! he will raise the percentage of the promisee to do, Mr. Blaine will go before the convention simply invincible. This, of course is looking into the future through the Mine hormeope.\ crease of his band, and by protecting all de claimed by Mr. Blaine's friends that nobody can point -to an act of the presi- dent since tbeebie of Marchand any that behind it is apparent the -second term motive. They contend that President Harrison entered , upon his duties with die -single term idea firmly 'fixediin his and, and that -being still in such a frame of mind, he is able•to look with equanimi- ty -upon the necevement of the Blaine peo- ple ler 1892. in support of this view, at- teatioe is invited to the close relations w hieh Mr. Blaine's 'most devoted friends sustair to the president. Felkine, iKer- ens and others who are for Btaine 'first last and all the time;\ as the saying goes, are on the most frieadly footiog with the president. All that Mr. Harrison insists upon is that this sh.ali be a Ifarrisomad- ministration. He will permit no oeer- topping iy Blaine none He will not Imre sent to tim use of any patronage to help on the Blii!ne movement. But he wi!1 . . to be conducted. In puzsuance of this pc/key, Mr. Blaine will be as intimately aseeniated as is possible from this time on with the leiglatasn for the development of our Itiouth Amecican trade. That is to againet inclement ‘•,eather he expects to Tile, republicans have not gained a par - Liao of advantage in their effort to orga- nize the senate by revolutionary methods. The democrats went into session with 1 for his lightest clip hereafter. If lie be them expecting at least a semblance of not disappointed the $1.000 invested in fair play; they did not get it. It was the i fault of the republicans that time his great shed will be money at excellent the d ye' again it will are ',peel I • . If ill tntereet. be tiuir own fault. Timir eyes are opened. ehear u heavier clip. His annual clips have heretofore run from 38,000 to 42,009 reninds. He connts on the highest figures the range he buys and young, big and little. These we will or more eows upon his inents and additions must be made to out -buildings and sheds, the range must be almest constantly ridden to look after weak cews in the spring or weaker calves in the fall and the THOUSAND .kND ONE other matters which requiro looking after at the head center of a large range tattle establishment must not be neglected. All these occupy time and when the New Year rolls around the cattleman looks hack at the past and knows just what he must do in the future. Like the COUNTED ON FOR BEEF. These will average one season withanoth- washer he never can see the end of his e labor, and like the dish -washer whe hasr 1,250 pounds each. The average price nothing to show for his year's work but for such beeves at the 'Chicago market this year woe $3.25, yielding to the cattle man $20,312.50 for his year's work. Now the cleanly washed plates upon his rack, the stoke ..an soinetiiv.es has nothing to let us see how he t..11 eteied when he show focKS- : dyer hut the cleaely licked strikes his balance sheet at the end of bones of his herds lyiag upon the ranges. The the year. A few figures will tell it. , teiten CATTLE I D UST*? Y is carried on quite differently from the wool growing busiaess. The wool grower always limehis sheep in hand. He knows just where they are every night. The range cattleman Pees some of his stock once or twice a.year and some of it be never sees until at is loaded upon trains ready for tranapertation to market. One may visit a large cattle firm in Montana and not see a half dozen steers in sight, but he can ride for a day or two in any directios and see a dozen each hour bear- ing the -ranch brand. In this fact, the distant reader -may see the risks attend- ing the range cattle industry. A anew fall that will cover feed beyond the reachof range cattle for two or three weeks .11ANKFM:PTS -THEIR OWNERS. This :ate and the additional facts that the ranges are being occupied by steep and that settlers are taking up and im- proving much of the valley lands where water may be obtained have about con- vinced the.leading cattlemen of the state that theearage cattle business is rapidly nearing its and in Montana. Mr. Milner, who is a level headed, intelligent gentle- man and thoroughly intimate with the ins and outs of the business, is also in- clined to this _opinion. But he is well prepared to carry it on. The firm owns four ranches, each -bountifully supplied with water.and commanding ranges cov- ering an area of over 200 square miles. What is meant by this is that the firm Owns about all the available water in that area and hence cannot be crowded out by sheep men or others. Of course all the cattle on the range have access to this water e they do to water owned by other firms. Yet with these advantages of wa- ter and free range the cattle business is attended „with great risks. We have named one. Among others may be men- tioned mnee;F. YIRES. These are bitter enemies to right and if they once obtain the upper hand of the -cowboys; it, is goad bye to the winter feed super' that range. Fanned by the fierce gales and fed by the cured standing grasses they travel at race horse speed and atrOnly stopped by large streams of water or by the desperate Lighting of the range riders. And speaking about COW BOYS • Leads usi to say that eastern people enter- tain a very erroneous impression con- cerning the physical and mental make -rip of the average . Montana cow boy. They are far from being the profane, drunken, knife throwing, gun playing, reckless t Youths that some of the eastern metro- politan pictorial periodicals delight in ex- hibiting them. We will take those found upon the home ranch of the Milner Live Stock CJ. There is not a lady upon the place, all the outfit being bachelors, but one cannot find in this western country a neater, cleaner and tidier establishment or more polite, gentlemanly young men Interest on $100,000 4 10 $10,000-00 Expense, including taxes 10,000 00 Total 8-0,000 00 Amount rec'd for 500 beeves $20,312 50 Profit on year's labor $312 50 No account is here taken of the in- crease of stock, for during the past few _years, owing to unfavorable seasons, loss of young stock and old cows by wolves and other wild animals the increase may be reckoned upon one's fingers. The profit arising from marketieg old cows may be illustrated by a shipment of them made by Mr. Ed. Keaster, of the upper Shonkin, this season. Instead of receiv- ing a check for their sale he was called upon by his consignees for a check to cover the expense of shipment and com- mission on sale which amounted to a few dollars more than the cattle brought. He sent the check and at the same time his appetite for shipping old cows to the Chicago market was completely destroy- ed. The fact is, says Mr. Milner, there is no profit in the range cattle industry un- der FOUR CRNTS PEE POUND for beef cattle. Cattlemen are making not only deep but loud complaints against the present assessed valuation of their herds in Choteau county. The present year it was fixed at $18 per head all round; that is, including every hoof from a sucking calf to a beef steer. They hold that this is too much, as their beeves alone must pay the assessment ,,on all the others. In other words only about ten per cent of their herds will bring a sum in excess of the assessed valuation of the whole. This they contend is an injustice to the cattle industry which county commissioners should correct in the future. Mr. Milner takes no stock in THE HUE AND CRY raised in some quarters against the Chi- cago \Big Four.\ He expresses the be- lief that they are the salvation of the cat- tle business in the west. The industry has reached such proportions that unless there were heavy firms to handle the im- mense daily shipments received in that market confusion worse confounded would exist and the cattle business would be paralyzed or completely broken up. The demands of the industry require the employment of immense capital at some central market to systematize and handle it and unless the present \Big Four\ did it some other Big Four or Big Six that hail the necessary millions to throw into it would Lake hold of the business of buy- ing, slaughtering, packing, etc., and carry it on. With the \Big Four\ there is ready market at some price every day for the stocknianas product. Without them the market would be as uncertain as the wind and tne stockman would find none quite as often as he found a ready one. But it would require a book to hold all that may be said about the range cattle business. In the foregoing hastily writ- ten lines we have scarcely hit the high places. The reader may till the interven- ing spaces at his leisure. RANGE CATTLE INDUSTRY. than are found there. From four to twenty men are employed on this ranch A Few Pointers Concerning the Businetoi as the year round. About the same number Conduct. -d In Northern Montana. are employed upon tbe John Lepley and Ike Kingsbury ranches, all in the eastern A representative of the RIVER PRESS in portion of Choteau county, but the peace company with a traveling companion officers and courts of the county have yet found himself at the, very hospitable to make the first arrest or to try the first ranch of the Milner Live Stock company case for assault or any other misdemean- last Friday night. Mr. M. E. Milner, one or among them. It must be understood, of the resident partners of the firm, wee h at home and entertained his visitors in however, that while the average cow boy that princely style which has earned for is a peaceable, law-abiding, gentlemanly tee ranch throughout northern Montana young man he is quick to make others as a reputation for genuine hospitality se:: peaceable and gentlemanly who e a x tp te e m ns p e t . ond to none in the entire northwest. The to air their importance at He is built that way and can't help it. home ranee of the firm is located upon the \DOES THE CATTLE BUSINESS PAY?\ upper Shonkiu about 18 miles east of • inquired the RIVER PRESS representative .Fort Bepton. It comprises a substan- tiaile built, roomy and comfortable two of Mr' 'Hiner. This question led to a discussion of the matter which nniy be THE MARIAS PASS. Engineer Stevens of the Manitoba Return* and Reports the Putman Excellent One S to the River Preen. FORT ASSINNIBOINE, December 21.— Engineer Stevens, of the Manitoba survey - party returned here to -day, having been to the top of the Marine pass. Mr. Stev- ens is well pleased with the approach to the pass. The summit, 5,700 -feet high, can be reached by a grade of less than 100 feet to the mile. It is a low open pass from one to six miles wide, and little solid rock work will be necessary. It is estimated the cost of the road through the pass will not exceed 816,000 per mile; and as the route tn the coast will be at lease 100 miles shorter thrifi any 'other, it 'ow story log house two or three good stir i summarized as follows: The extent to , will no doubt be the one selected. The Lies, extensive shedding, carriage heuese, 1 which one may engage in the business is snow is three feet deep in the mountains. hennery and ice house. The TilOROUGHBRED RANCE CATTLEMAN lof course limited to his means and to the end the party traveled 15 miles on sten% 'range he may command. We will say for i _ L rehoes to reach the top of the pass. dues no farming. He sometimes keeps a i illustration a man commences the, buse 4 few chickens for the eggs and toothsome ' meat the furnish but with a thousand nese with 5,000 head of mixed cattle, old , $18 dollars each, the assess . - The Attorney General Files a Denkurrcr butter. He has no time to weed gardens, 1 -say cost him ed valuation of cattle in Choteau county. the Roberts Case Which .ludge H 1111i : Prompt o 0 ve rro les. hoe potatoes or milk cows. Early and The means an investment of $90,000. late, winter or summer, fall or spring he t His buildings, corrals, sheds, fencing for I . 4 1 ,,, h1 the R i v p r alwaysfindsh• to do. The sever- lund an e, horses d other ranch apper- ELE'N A. December 24.- \Ile 111..ielinum , al annual rouud-upti must be attended ha Y tenanctei necessary to handle that- nu in- case of Roberts against Auditor Kenney to, hay must be previtled and hauled at. • her of cattle will cost $10,000 more- -a to - Was called at 10 o'clock before Judge corrals, weadoe fences must be kept in tal of ‘100,000. The money in Montana Hunt. Attoiney General Haskell ate order. constant additions and improve - is worth ten per cent. per annum. This peered for the auditor and tiled a demur - fact must also be taken into account. Ttie expense of taking care of the cattle, including wages and board of men, wear and loss of horse flesh, rounding up, steering, branding, marketing beeves, SANDERs' FA BCC. rer to the writ. The demurrer urges that the petitioner should go farther hack than the mere statement of being a member of the house of representatives and should show everything from his nomination to feeding and taking care of weak cows and the time of the organization of said young calves during the winter months house. The petition asks the auditor to and taxes on $100,000 including indemni- issue him a certificate for pay when in ty tax, amounts to $10,000. Taking 5,000 reality the legislative assembly had the cattle as they run not over 10 per eent, only remedy by way of an appropriation. or 500 head may be If the certificate of the auditor was is- sued it would go right back to the legis- lature from whence it came. The second point raised in the demur- rer is that the petition does not shoe which of the two houses was the lega one. Jurige rfunt staled tirat all officere of the state were entitled to certificates from the auditor whether there be any money to pay them or not, as long as the fact Is not denied that he is an officer of the state. The grounds in the demurrer are not well taken and the court holds agairee the state. Attorney General Haskell then asket Col. Sanders if he desired to go into a full investigation of the case and have a jury trial and count precinct 34. The reason he put the question was to know how much time would be required to tile an answer. Sanders replied that the court could not try the validity of a member's right to a seat when the house itself was the sole judge and had already decided that he was a member. The question which should be settled speedily was where does the authority lie from the time of the voter depositing his ballot until the legis- lature is finally organized. The court granted until Saturday at 10 o'clock a. Ile for the filing of an answer. Ru...4ell H. Had a Hand in the Papal Rank Scheme. A London dispatch to the New Vora Herald says: The Herald story of the contemplated organization of a Catholic hank has created an immensity' of talk here. In spite of the denials of severe: persons Apposed to be interested, the impression remains that the Herald's story was entirely warranted. I met a man to -day who said: I have known of such a project since last June. In that month I was asked te translate into Italian a prospectus intend- ed for private circulation. It describe: an organization to be called the Anglo- Roman bank and was to be founded in London with £20,000,000 capital. The in spirer of the project is a gentlemen high in papal circles Among the directors mentioned was the Duke of Norfolk, Russel! Harrison. son of the president of the United States: the Earl of Harrington, and Count Pix- el. nephew of the Pope. \How do you know Russell Harrison was to be interested in the scheme?\ \In June both Count Pecci and Russell Harrison were in London, and while here they discussed the organization of the bank and agreed upon the preliminary steps. The prospectus has been ready since June and I saw it in printed form.\ The gentleman referred to as the in- spirer of the project has been a resident in London for some time, and lives in handsome style. He is depended upon to secure the approval of the Pope for the scheme. The Herald's publication may have killed the project, but that it was 'seriously under way is certain. Tem . state senate is not yet lawfully or- ganized and it has no power to enforce the attendance of a democratic or any other member. The so-called sergeant - at -arms of that body may yet become dis- agreeably impressed with this f • .4L .0416, , .4.4.

The River Press (Fort Benton, Mont.), 25 Dec. 1889, located at <http://montananewspapers.org/lccn/sn85053157/1889-12-25/ed-1/seq-1/>, image provided by MONTANA NEWSPAPERS, Montana Historical Society, Helena, Montana.