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• THE STANFORD WORLD., saimminms, CHARLES McLURE SILVER'S FRIEND PASSING OF PIONEER MINING OPERATOR RECALLS DAYS 010 FREE COINAGE Developed the Granite Mine at Phil- lipsburg Into great Property; Paid Off His Miners in Silver Dollar; Forecasted Development of Quartz In Sta4e. Charles D. McLure, pioneer wining Operator of Montana, at one time a millionaire, died at his home in Mis- soula a few days ago. His greatest achievement was the development of the Granite Mountain mine at Phil- lipsburg from the grass roots into a, $26,000,000 property. The mine was paying large dividends before the de-. monetization of silver, which made it impossible to operate it at a profit. Many residents of St. Louis, whom McLure interested in the property, made fortunes out of theirstock hold- ings. McLure was an ardent bimetallist. When the question of the free coin- age of silver was paramount in na- tional affairs he ordered that his payroll at Phillipsburg be paid in silver dollars. It was a little incon- venient to take One'staay home Ur tt wheelbarrow, but the miners, loyal te the white metal, applauded the ap-, 1i0ii of their employer. . Helped tct s Build Fads: Bridge When the mine closed - down Mc - Lure, then well-to-do, went to St. Louis, where his successful operation of the property, which had been fin- anced by St. Louis money, had made him many friends. He endeavored to finance several large undertakings, including the street car system of St. Louis, and in this met with finan- cial dielister. Then he returned to Motttana in an effort to repair his shattered fortunes. In this he was not successful, but the recent rise in silver had put him in a better po- sition than he had been for some years. Ile also helped to finance the building of the famous Eads bridge across the Mississippi river at St. Louis, and stood well in the Missouri business world. McLure came to Montana in 1865. He first engaged in placer mining, meeting with some minor success. Then for several years he was at the head of a bull team freighting busi- ness, bringing supplie3 from Salt Lake City to the Montana mining camps. POresaw Quartz Development Ile was among the first men in the state to see the possibilities of quartz development, and like W. A. Clark, equipped himself educationally for quartz mining. He was then about 35 years of age and went to St. Louis where he took a special course in metallurgy and geology. This course finished he returned to Mon- tana. ' This was in the old days when sil- ver was gelling around $1.29 an ounce. He became interested in the Granite Mountain mine. It became apparent early in his connection with it that it would be necessary for him to raise sufficient capital to build a mill and operate the mine on a large scale in order to make a success of it. So he went to St. Louis, where hp put the proposition up to a group of capitalists and thus was the Gran- ite Mountain, whLch became one of the great silver phducing properties of the state, brought into being. He was buried in Phillipsburg, the town to which he gave prosperity. U. S. A. Locomotives The United States government is 'going into the railroad business with a bang. Standardization of locomo- tives is the move now contemplated .and the latest news along this line is that an order for 3,000 locomotives ;of standard type is soon to be placed ,with the engine manufacturers on the basis of productive capacity. It may not be long before the people of Montana will see engines wheeling past with the letters U. S. A. In place of the initials which formerly designated the road on which they were operating. The effect of stan- dardization wilt be to enable tne manufacturers to produce the requir- ed number of locomotives much more quickly than under the old syst.m when each road's specifications had to be followed. Londlord—Sir, the other tenants will not stay if yoweinsist on playing the cornet. Mr. Toots—I'm glad of that. They were very annoying.— Boston Transcript. Great Falls Brick & Tile Co. GREAT FALLS, MONTANA Manufacturers of LIGHT, BUFF AND DARK FACE BRICK, 'FIRE BRICK, BUILDINO TILE, HOLLOW BLOCKS, FIRE PROOFING, DRAIN TILE Offleet SOS 1st National Rank Balla s RAINBOW HAMS AND BACON GREAT FALLS MEAT CO. PACKERS LEWI1S AND CLARK REACH SHOtHONE CARP, LED BY SACAJ AWEA D THE \BIM WOMAN\ The crossing of the main range of the Rocky mountains pre- sented one of the problems of the Lewis and Clark expedition across the continent in 1805 that might well have proved an in- surmountable obstacle in their ambitious plan of exploring the wilderness lying between the Mississippi river and the Pacific. After leaving the Dakota camps of the Mandans they encountered no Indians on their approach to the main range, and although they daily expected to encounter some tribe which might furnish them with guides and horses, their hopes were destined to disappoint- ment. But there was one member of their party in whom they learn- ed to place more and more confidence. This was Sacajawea, or the Bird Woman, as the name was translated into English. Saca- jawea was a Shoshone girl, who had been stolen from her tribe on the western slopes of the Rockies when she was just emerging from childhood, together with another Shoshone girl. They were taken by the Mintarees and she became the slave of the lazy, bru- tal Charbonneau, the half-breed whom Lewis and Clark employed as a guide. Although carrying a baby at her back, Sacajawea withstood the hardships of the journey as well as did any of the men, and she guided the party safely across the mountain passes to the head waters of the Columbia river. It was here that Sacajawea found her own people, and the incident is depicted above in the painting by Charles M. Russell, the noted Montana artist. This Russell picture, which is extremely valuable as a depic- tion of an interesting incident in western history, besides its value as a marvelous painting, has just been completed for Thomas F. Cole, the well kneWn Duluth copper magnate, who commissioned Russell to paint six pictures for him recently. OLD FORT KEOGH MAY BE MADE ONE OF IVO NATIONAL CAVALRY TRAINING DEPOTS xc , -.7 <_- — i ,•.,- — ... e -e - s Pt e. '------ ..' ••• • , r41. Fort Keogh, Near Miles City, Is to be Made Into a Great Training Camp for Army Horses. It has been a re - meant Station for Many Years, Where Range Horses are Partially Broken and Sent on to Eastern Sta- tions for Finishing. The Incident Here Depicted by a Famous Montana Artist Is an Every Day Occur- rence at Fort Keogh. This Particular Horse Evidently Has Not Taken Kindly to Army Life and is Making Physical Protest. Fort Keogh, the MILs City military poet established by General Nelson A. Miles in the days when it was al- ways the open season among hos- tile Indian tribes as far as the white settlers were concerned, may be made one of two great depots for the train- ing of thousands of horses for use in the cavalry and artillery. It is stated that the war department contem- plates some departure of this kind and a detail of cavalry officers, who recently inspected the fine old fort, with' its reservation of 11,000 acres, and its spacious buildings and equip- ment, made a favorable recommen- dation with this end in view. In 1875 Ge - eral Miler came to Montana to Were HA Indian. He made the headq carters of his main forces at Miles City, and this led to the establishment of Fort Keogh there. For a long time it was depart- ment headquarters and detachments of troops were sent out from there to fight the Indians. Finally, after years of small bat- tles and skirmishes, the most conse- quential of which was the annihila- tion of the brave Custer and his en- tire command on the Rosebud, the fighting spirit of the Indians was subdued, and peace came. With peace there was nothing for Miles and his men to do in Montana. Tifey transferred their activities to the southwestern bordet and put in much of their time in the hazardous Job of taming Geronimo and his war- riors. The government kept a small garrison at Fort Keogh for a number of years and finally withdrew even this force, and the military glamor that was once the pride of old Miles - town went the way of all flesh. The Montana Horse Market About the time of the Boer war, Great Britain discovered that Mon- tana provided an excellent field for the purchase of cavalry remounts. It was Lord Stratticona, head of the Hudson's Bay company, to whom this Idea first appealed, as the result of an Interview with John Conway, a Montana horse buyer. He sent Con- way into the range country of this state and b^ught animals for the Stratlicona horse. The results were so satisfactory that British officers came to the state and bought not only thousands of animals for the cavalry to be sent to South Africa, but heav- ier horses for the artillery and tran- sport as well. Then the military authorities of the United States were, 14 British buying, brought to a realization of the horse producing possibilities of Montana and Fort Keogh became a remount station of the American army, where horses were bought for the cavalry, and as the grade im- proved, for the artillery as well. As the years have passed, Fort Keogh, as a remount station, has in- crefteed in importance, until now sev- eral hundred broncho \busters the survivors of the old puncher days, find employment on the Fort Keogh reservation. , The wild horses are taken from the ranges and broken. In the past they have been only partially tamed and then sent on to other depots where they were trained and finished to meet the requirements of the army. Will Finish Training at Miles Under the new arrangement it is proposed to train and finish a large proportion of the horses used by the United States army. When the fact that the United States is almost certain to have an army of 6,000,000 men in service within the next two years, or as quickly as they can be organized and trained, is considered, some idea may be visioned of what this great horse camp may develop into. It will furnish employment to 500 or more experienced horse breakers. With the Montana horse that Helena expert cowboy riders. It will mean the employment of as many, wore wranglers and hostlers. After the cowboy rider has subdued the young horse so as to permit of iii\itary edu- cation, army experts will take him over. It is said to be possible to take on a green range horse that has never even experienced the handicap of a halter, and put him through an in- tensive course of training that will make of him a highly educated ani- mal, ready to be ridden up to the cannon's mouth, gentle and docile, in a few weeks. Make Market for Horses And while the quantity of forage consumed will furnish a fine market for all tile horse food stuff that may be raised in the vicinity of Mileetown, and the payroll of the horse break- ers and wranglers will make business for the mercantile establishments of Miles City, the biggest feature of the proposition is the great market that will be made for Montana horse- flesh. The ranges and farms will be fine tooth combed for likely 'young ani- mals, and army buyers will go till over Montana looking for suitable mounts for cavalry, and heavier ani- mals of a draft type for transport and artillery. For the horse, not- withstanding the inroads that have been made by the automobile motor, is still one of the great factors in war, and is likely to he for all time. For there is no imagination so vivid that it can draw in the mind a picture of a charge of 10.000 men, yelling at the peak of vocal production, waving their sabers with one hand and steer- ing their motor bicycles with the other. In onslaughts of this kind the horse will always have 1.ia part to play. An Ideal Training Site The great reservation of which Fort Keogh is the headquarters is of Ideal topography. Miles picked it when he had for his choice the whole of the prairie land of Montana. It lies, all of it, level as a loard, along the southern tank of the Yellow- stone river. Half a hundred batter- ies of field artillery and thousands of horses could maneuver over It without the slightest interference, and because of its ideal location, and the great horse market that is hack of it to supply the needs of the aymy it is felt that there iR little dolibt but that it will be picked as one of the great horse training camps of the national government. Convicts Would Serve Two hundred and fifty prisoners at the state penitentiary in Deer Lodge are being drilled in military science as a result of a round robin proposed to the warden. The men in for short time hope to induce the governor to pardon them and allow them to sail for France to redeem their good names. Here Comes the Concrete Ship Immediate construction of 14 con- crete tank steamers for fuel oil trade, with total capacity of 105,000 tons, and of four concrete cargo vessels with total Capacity of 12,600 tons, has been decided on by the natoinal shipping board. BATTLE STORY BY MONTANA AVIATOR AUSTIN J. PARKER, FORMERLY OF HELENA, IS NOW WITH FRENCH FLYING (\ORPS Describes Attempt, In Which He Participated, to Put Observation Balloon Out of Commission; Fast %Vork With Shells Bursting All About the Airmen. Austin J. Parker, formerly a re- rdrter on the Helena Independent, dud well known ill the larger cities et Montana, after two years' work as all vorrespondent of the Now York T111,[lhe, as an aviator in the Fieio•iL 'ea'adrille. an I is distinguish - Ile hail 1114-11 decorated It '11,11 war cross, and is to arrange for his dia.d , i dirplans division of Apt,' ', r al•11,,. lie has written iii Out 1101 it 11' to his father, II. PauLT , a ii\ jug man of Helena, it ohio ii- des,ribes his battlefield e l']irker gives a vivid des - tilt atletopt Of the it%iators, ii ui ii himself lo pnt a ;•' 4 / tf“1101111 011t of commission. lie lik , Mettant ‘vas leaditig• had 111, and :+erond Or - 1,•1 \\ played about fov a tulle letting the III l :lit V, It , tilielhi on ,otirse IwLiwilvering all the p.,tidiloH eNciling the Is.rsions ir Cie sausage crew. Ii, Attack \I.'inally we got %Otero we wanted. 'I'Le Mader shook his wings as a slg- iii down we ;darted bell bent r,r election. The to finery that pro - Is is the balloons (metedl up it royal nonade. The leader started crawl- ss away from me and I \gave her tii gun\ and did some faster travel- ing than I have ever done before in my young life probably a hundred and fifty miles an hour, appronehing the ground at an angle of 46 degrees. The barrage whooped it up heavier thanever.hmieell broke under my left wing, slamming me over to one side. I fully expected 10 one the wing cave in. I whirled around into course again just in time to see the lieuten- ant opening up with his machine gAin. Debug (art her away from the balloon than he I held my fire until it would be mere eff , ,tive. Mtn Leaps hill- Life — Elie observer in lite sausage Jumped for dear life with ills para- chute. At (lint moment mitchine guns on the ground cut loose and I found myself in a shower bath of luminouti tracer bullets. •rilatwas getting near enough for Amide J. I squeezed the trigger and let the ma- chine gun rip. \Watehing those incendiary bul- lets and alining my maChInn accord- ing to couree they took was the most fascinating thing I have ever done in my life. I forgot about everything elan In (ho world and I do 't 'hisew where I would have ended ufr'N. my machine gun hadn't jammed. By that time the other two had finished fire and pulled away and when I yanked that inachin 's nose skyward I became unpleasantly aware that at least half the machine guns in the wee Id were concentrated on me. Climbing t • Safety \I ducked from side to side, climbing its though the devil were after me, at the same time trying to get my machine gun into action, to be ready for a combat if any enemy plane pounced upon me. \Finally I got out of range of the Boche machine guns and took a look around for the others. They -were nowhere to be seen. . \Believe me, I didn't wait!\ 'Of the fire of anti-aircraft guns, he writes: \It its a piece of good luck that fate has dealt out that the anti- aircraft guns are not very effective. They fire an enormous nniount of am- munitiop and if they bit anything It is by chalice, though that happens often enough to throw the tear of God into a person's htittrt when they open up with a decent aim. • \Patrolling is an exciting Job. It's a game of follow the leader, which is sometimes very difficult because the machines are threshing about from side to side to avoid the anti- aircraft fire and to give the pilots a better view around them. \It is necessary to be on the look- out every minute in every direction to, prevent a surprise attack from the boches, who may be waiting above to come down and crown you. Shells Bark Like Dog \Then above 0)8 roar of the motor you hear the shells they are firing at you, going 'wou-uff wou-uff' las they break. They sound like an old dog barking. The shells open up in puffs of black smoke and if they are getting too close, the whole pa- trol, following the leader, turns the machines up completely sidewise and takes a sheer drop of a tie usand feet or so; then darts off in a new direc- tion before the guns can correct their aim. Sometimes the entire two hours In the air is simply a continuous per- formance of aerial acrobatics and very often the men, after they return, are indisposed for an hour or so by a feeling of seasickness.\ Sink Submarines Twelve German submarines are of- ficially recorded as having been sunk or captured in British waters by American and British destroyers dur- ing April, which was a record. At least two others are believed to have been destroyed. Many Air Inventions Washington.—Over 16,000 new de- vices relating to aeronautics have been submitted to Washington by In- ventors since the war began. Many have merit. Eight hundred thousand American soldiers subscribed to $120,000,000 of Third Liberty loan bonds, No, Geraldine, the -fact that a man smells that way is no sign that he has a strong personality. ci IM•11,11011110.4,