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THE STANFORD WORLD. 6 SMELTER WORKERS PATRIOTIC OATH SWEAR THEY WILL STAY ON THE JOB SIX DAYS A WEEK UN- TIL WAR IS WON. Captain Friuli( Edwards, Veteran of Four Years' Fighting, Comes to Meatatte to Check Gerntaa Propa- gaada; Tours State; Cordially Re- ceived Everywhere. If the purpose of the British gov- ernment in pending Captain Frank Egv;ards into Montana to correct German propaganda to the effect that Great Britain has not done her part in the world war, then that purpose has been well served. The captain, a veteran of four years of trench war- fare, came into the state like a iamb and went out like a lion. His fame preceded him from city to city and everywhere he went the enthusiasm with which he was received waxed and became greater. The man, with his simple eloquence and his true tale of the sacrifices which his country had made, had something to do with this reception, but of course, sympathy with the cause he repre- sents had more. The Part of Labor. He made a groat hit in Anaconda. He addressed an immense gathering at the smelter, emphasizing the im- portant place of work in this war. The man who is doing his tasks faith- fully behind the lines, he declared is doing as much in his way as the man in the line, and is no slacker so long as he gives his utmost to his daily duty. The slacker is the one who shirks service to his fullest abil- ity. Captain Edwards asked the men to take a pledge of service, and the 2,000 rose as one with upheld hands and took this vow: \So long as the war shall last, I'll stick to my job. I'll do an honest day's work, six days a week, overtinte if necessary. I'll do anything else the president of, the United States calls upon me to do, so help me God.\ He declared his belief that. 1918 is a fateful year, a year of destiny. It may be that we are entering the final stages of the fight, and that Germany is stripped to the waist for the last round. \But Germany, stripped to the waist for the last round, will be ferocious, and the situation Is such that it behooves every one to do his utmost in averting disaster by striv- ing for immediate and decisive vic- tory,\ England's Sacrifices. He adverted to the poisonous whis- per that England has not done her best—has not played the game. Eng- land, he declared, in the firet few months lost 78 per cent of her orig- inal entire fighting force. In the re- treat from Mons a division of 12,000 men left 10,000 on the field. In the battle of the Somme England lost 25,- 600 officers and a half -million men; in one action 27,000 were killed; in another 6,600 officers and 95,000 men. Referring to the gap at Cam- brai, he said the gap was not the miracle of the war; the miracle was that the gap was filled by 260,000 men, who were poured in to stop the drive at al/ costs. He paid glowing tribute to the valor of the French at Verdun, a defense notable in all his- tory; yet at Verdun the Germans used 21 divisions in the month; at Cambrai there were 102 divisions massed in the effort to break through. The Sorrows of France. What the people of France have endured he pictured vividly—the class of those whose homes were behind the lines to which the Germans ad- vanced; the saddest man in all the world, the Frenchman who has no longer a home to fight for, the man for whom what once was home is now a horror. The second class is the one whose homes were in the spots over which the shifting areas of No Man's Land have passed. France cannot compensate them when the war is over, for France Is too poor; England cannot, for England has poured out her wealth; the com- pensation is not to come from Ameri- ca. \Only one nation is responsible before God for compensating the peo- ple of France, and that nation is Ger- many. My job and your job is to as- sure such overwhelming victory that Germany shall be compelled to make restitution for the havoc ad desola- tion wrought in France.\ The third class he described as the people be- hind the allied lines, whose places for four years have been billets for the troops. He told of what sacrifices this has entailed, all borne without a word of complaint, for it is the choice of France to endure discomfort for our clean -hearted soldiers, however long it may be necessary, rather than have the bestial Hun come within reach of them. The speaker appealed to Americans to put patriotism berore politics and prejudice. As a matter of fact, he declared, nobody has been able to ex- plain to him during his three months in America what difference there is between the great ,political parties; he urged that the lines be ignored, and that the nation be one solid, united, determined and self-denying people. He alluded to the prejudice, forever gone, that had separated Eng- lish and Americans, and made feeling reference to the feeling of kinship that had marked his appearance be- fore his audiences in this country. A receiver has been appointed for Nat C. Goodwin, who is broke flat- ter than a German treaty. If all the ex -Mrs. Goodwins would contribute to a dollar fund for the relief of the suffer, the old boy would wallow in wealth yet. Great Fans Brick & me Cc ORNAT WALLS, DONTA,11A lihamdastar•rs Sf UONT, DIIII/7/ AND DANN PAM DRUM NINN BOWL DIMMING III\ HOLLOW 11CMS MAD PX00117X0, DAWN TILTS Offices 6611 1$t Lakes* Omit setleise UNWRITTEN r 'INERS 9 LAWS GOVERNED TITLE !FUTURE OF THOSE TO GROUND MTH HUNDREDS OF PAIOLLOONS WITH THE COLORS Type of Men Who Had Unwritten Code of Laws and Who Sense Ruled in Decisions of the Miners' Courts. Of the making of laws, as of the making of books, there is no end. Today Montana has a vast aggrega- lion of statutes that have been pass- ed by the various state legislatures. many of which are not enforced and are forgotten so far as the public is concerned. Once Montana had no written laws, but a carefully observ- ed and well -recognized code of un- written laws. These were the min- ers' laws of pioneer days. These minors' laws of Montana, like the all -enduring constitution of the British empire, while unwritten, resided, nevertheless, in the miners' hearts, based upon the eternal prin- ciple of equity. There exist today, scattered here and there about the state, many an old record from a miners' court, written in the recorder's original manuscript. They have to do with mining matters, and they differ, in- sofar as the basic law is concerned, Only slightly, according to the dis- trict in which the court was held. Various districts and various sets of laws governing mining claims and property. The pringipal differences had to do with the length of a mining claim and the time allowed a miner to \lay over\ without being \jumped.\ This was a matter regulated only by wa- ter, snow, frozen ground, etc. Common Sense the Law. Common sense was the law of the miner. No man was required to work his claim if it could not be worked; nor was it written down that a claim could not be \jumped\ if its owner was absent . fighting Indians or kept from work by sickness or lack of \grub\ at hand. But such was the insatiable law, and as fixed as that of the Medea and Persians. Of course as districts rounded down from their first crude existence and began to be developed as great wealth producers, the recorder be- came a man of considerable import- ance, got a big book and Lad an of- fice, instead of carrying his office around in his hat, as Abraham Lin- coln did when postmaster. Here are the entire laws of one district: \We most of the miners, resolve, first, that this district shall be called French creek, and that a claim shall be 100 feet long in the creek, 200 feet long in a gulch and 60 feet front on the bank, end that a man may bold one of each. \Resolved secondly, that no more Chinamen shall take up claims. \Resolved thirdly, that a white man must stick up a notice at each end of his claim when he takes it up. \Resolved fourthly, that a man may lay over his claim a month by posting a notice and paying the re- corder one dollar. No Lawyers Allowed. \Resolved fifthly, that all disputes about claims shall be settled by a miners' meeting and no lawyers.\ If the above document ever had a date it does not appear on it to- day. This may not be called a fault- less book of laws, yet millions were oftentimes held by no other tenure, and the miner lost no sleep from dread of his title deeds. In some districts, for a time, law- yers were not debarred. One law suit is described by the late Joaquin Miller, famous as the poet of the Sierras, in which he appeared as at- torney for the defendant. The con- troversy was over a defective no- tice. The opposing counsel was a bright young fellow, Thurmond, noted afterward as one of thNlaw- yers who unsuccessfully defended George Ives, the notorious road agent, and who, being notified by the vigilantes to leave the country in 20 minutes, replied that, he would be off in less than five if his mule didn't balk. The notice In the above -mention- ed suit read as follows: \Notese I clames de dames on dose here gulch here.\ Thurmond claimed that this was no notice at all; but his client ad- mitted that he knew Dutch Jake, the baker, posted the notice and claimed the ground. So the miners' court gave the poor illiterate fellow the claim without even giving Joaquin Miller a chance to make his maiden speech. Helena's First Laws. The mining laws of Last Chance Guide, whose wealth made Helena at one time the wealthiest city per capita in the world, was even more brief than those mertioned above. These laws, by which millions upon millions of dollars were held in ab- solute security and perfect confi- dence, were passed at a meeting held on Last Chance creek July 20, 1864. They are as follows: \That the gulch be named Last Chance Gulch, and the district in which the discovery is made be named Rattlesnake District, to ex- tend down three miles and up to the mouth of the canyon, and across from summit to summit. That min- ing claims in this district extend for 200 feet up and down the gulch, and from summit to summit. That no person be allowed to hold more than one claim by preemption, 100 feet for a discovery claim. That the dis- covery party shall have the prior right to the use of the gulch water. That claims, when pre-empted, be staked and recorded. That any per- son, besides his own claim, be al- lowed to record one for his actual partner; but if a partner be so re- corded, it must be specified, and the name given in full.\ There are few people living today, probably, who realize that at one time town lots could be pre-empted by any person and \jumped\ by an- other if the original owner did not do the required amount of improve- ment work to hold his property. This method of obtaining property also was in use in numerous other min- ing camps of the territory. The first laws governing Helena were adopted by majority vote at a meeting held October 30, 1864, at the third log cabin erected in Helena, then owned and occupied by Welling- ton E. Wood and his father-in-law, Orison Miles, the latter afterward being a citizen of Bozeman. The minutes of the meeting follow: \At a meeting of the citizens, of Last Chance Gulch for the purpose of naming the town and electing com- missioners, etc., on motion, G. J. Wood was elected chairman and T. E. Cooper secretary. After several motions and balloting, the name of Helena was given to the town, and G. J. Wood, H. Bruce and C. L. Cut- ler were elected town commission- ers, and ordered to lay out the town and get their pay for the work by recording lots at $2 each, the pro- ceeds to go to the commissioners for their labor and trouble. They were further authorized to make such laws and regulations as may be deemed necessary, to regulate the location and size of the lots, streets, alleys, etc. At a meeting of the commis- sioners it was decided that the lots should be thirty feet front by six- ty feet deep, and that any person might pre-empt a lot by laying a foundation on the lot, which founda- tion sh - Ould hold the lot ten days, and if a person record his lot at the time of laying the foundation, then the foundatkon should hold good for twenty days. And it was decided that 5KIPS FROM ASYLUM; WALKS 500 MILES HOME Taking French leave from the state insane asylum at War Springs, An- drew Erickson, who has a homestead near Comm, and for the last eight years an inmate of the state hospital for the insane, has • arrived at his ranch, after walking 600 miles in two weeks. Erickson's feet were in bad condition, but his general phy- sical health was apparently good. His mental state is the same as be- fore. He called on his guardian, T. 0. Elsethagen of Columbia Falls. In the entire trip he got a ride for only 25 miles. He has a considerable sum of money at his credit at a Kalis- pell bank. Under Sheriff J. O. Mor- ton has taken him back to Warm Springs. Raising Poultry. \What is the price of these chickens?\ asked the lady who does her own marketing. \A dollar and a quarter apiece, madam,\ replied Brush Beckwith, the Boxeman grocer. \bid you raise them yourself?\ asked the lady. \Oh yea, madame,\ replied Brush. They were only $1.10 last week.\ IN THE GRAND ARMY Olt` SIX MILLION MONTANA WILL HAVE 00,000. How the (lovernme.nt Proposes to Take Care of the Metimed Soldier and ills Dependents; Home Pro- visions of the Compensation Law Not Generally Understood. \ Did Not Need Lawyers to interpret Them; Common flee. The government, by the enissag,e of (ho war risk insurance law, pro- vided in generous measure for the fighter's family. This act, complex to the layman in seine of Its techni- cal phases, is an instrument whereby the government aims to dispel the one fear of its fighting men, that their families are not going to be de- pendent on others while they are away. In many ways the returned soldier will find his way back to in- dustrial and social life intellectually i tliic leftid fi it nancially stronger than whn e Ambition Fired Anew. The disabled returned soldier, upon his (Recharge from the army, receives a compensation which will insure, to some degree at least, his Independence. If he requires a new vocation, the, money the government gives him will help carry him through will fire his ambition to go ahead and regain his former place in so- ciety. It will stabilize his pence of mind and keep him contented in the thought that his family is being pro- vided for while he is being trained to earn a good living for the future. Compensation will be paid to the disabled soldier and sailor irrespec- tive of his earning capacity after the war; but it may be suspended if the man unreasonably refuses to fit him- self for active civilian life through the vocational opportunities the gov- ernment will provide. The purpose of these measures le to stimulate the disabled man to lift himself from the dead level of the government compensation to the highest economic condition within his powers. The country wants its heroes to develop every latent possi- bility. In England and Canada one of he most difficult problems to be over- come at the outset of the war in getting men to take courses in re- education was the fear they would be deprived of their compensation If they learned trades and earned good Incomes. \What is the use,\ they asked, \why should we work?\ It is interesting to note with what rapidity the new attitude toward the disabled is developing in America. The newspapers and periodicals are preaching the gospel of \Not char- ity—but a chance,\ and the people are responding. That is what gov- ernment compensation and vocation- al training will give our men—a chance with a running start. Military and naval compensation is based first on the injury and then on the size of the man's family. If the status of hie family changes from month to month or year to year, the amount of tho compensation changes with it. For instance, if a soldier or sailor now a bachelor be- comes handicapped and later, say 10 years after, should marry, the amount of his compensation will be Increased. And still later, If there are children, it, will be further in- creased. On the other hand, if he is married and has children at the time of his injury and in the future his wife or children should die, his com- pensation will be reduced to that of an unmarried man. Soldier Gets $80 Compensation. For permanent disability the monthly compensation is paid in the following amounts: If he has neither wife nor child living , 330. * If he has a wife but no child liv- ing, $45. If he has a wife and one child liv- ing, ;55. If he has a wife and two children living,g If h e $66.5 as . a wife and three or more children living, $75. If he has no wife but one child liv- ing, $40, with $10 for each additional child up to two. Bachelor or married, he receives 310 a month additional for his wid- owed mother. If his condition is such that he needs the constant at- tention of a nurse or attendant, the bureau of war risk may allow him up to $20 a Month for that purpose. ' 1111,200 a Year for Life, There is another significant pro- vision that Is not generally known today. For the loss of both feet, or both hands, or both eyes, or for a condition rendering a single or a family man permanently helpless or bedridden, $100 a month will be given. In addition to this, of .course, he will receive medical and surgical treatment and will be supplied with- in reason with all special appliances be may need. Many men, thus, ban - if there were no improvements made on the Iota at the expiration of the ten or twenty days, the lots p should be jumped; but all persons, should record their lots. 0. J. Wood was elected recorder of the town. All, disputes to be settled by the commis- sioners or by arbitration, until civil law is established.\ '[here were about 30 miners pres- ent at the meeting, and that they did not tali!) the work in hand very ser- iously is evidenced by the proposi- tions made to name the new town Punk inville, Squashtown, Toma- hawk and ; undry other mirthpro-, 4 voking titles. But at length, ac- cording to one of those present, John ] Somerville proposed the name St.: Helena, and to this name and the attune of fomah the meeting confin- ed its attention, the proposition of Somerville, in its amended form. Helena, being carried by one or two votes. RECALLS MEMORY OF BILL BUSKETT LAIPOYERISHED WOULD NOT DIS- POSE OF POEMS WRITTEN BY EUGENE FIELD. After His Demise Hand Made Vol- ume by Famous Author Sold for $5,000; Contained Poem Which Field Intended as National Hymn; Hero of \Pon Yan BM.\ When 'William Butikett, famoue Montanan, died in Spokane a few years ago he did not leave much in worldly goods. But among his ef- fects was a hand made book of Eu- gene Field's poems in the author's own handwriting. Buskett, who was the close friend of the poet and the hero of his poem, \Pen Yan Bill,\ would not dispose of the precious volume, even when grim poverty had him in its grip. The memory of his wonderful friend was too sacred to him, and he suffered want, but kept the book. After his death it was sold for $5,000. Old time members of the Montana club in Helena will remember \Pen Yan 1311P Buskett. He had made a modest fortune in mining, lost it, and for years eked out an existence of shabby gentility. Montanans who visited St. Louis during the world's fair of 12 years ago, will also re- member him. Ile was In charge of the Montana building, and his court- esy to visitors from this state was unfailing. Field Made Book. Field made the book himself, writing the verses in longhand on rough paper and binding it with iron strips. The poems in the novel vol- ume were never published, with the exception of a few exact duplicates made by the present owner for a few intimate friends. Among the poems of the little vol- ume was one which Field intended to offer as a national hymn. It is as follows: Whether on hill or plain, Blood of the patriot slain Hallows our sod; While from the glorious air Vaulting our land so fair Fall, as an incense rare, Blessings of God. Holy the heritage Blazoned on hist-ry's page For us to keep; Wrapped in thy mantles red, With our dear flag o'erhead, Rest thee, illustrious dead— Sweet be thy sleep! Princes that scorn the right— Nations whose pride is might— Crumble to dust! Feeedotn the boon we crave— No man shall be a slave Where e'er our banners wave— God is our trust! Seeing those early years Drive thro' a mist of tears, Pausing we stand; While spirit voices share This universal prayer Filling the solemn air \God bless our land!\ Montana, frontier state, tuts 13,0oo f ighting men serving nith the colors. This constitutes as Hatay KS all Canada sent in her first overseas expeditionary forces. The grand total In the forces of the United States is a little more than 8,000,000 sol- diers, about half of whom are ha training ps and hair are in France. The gover 'lit plans to raise a grand army of 6,000,- 0(all men by June I of nett year. It is not at all Improbable that Montana will hare between 55,- 000 AM! 60,000 111Cla la the ser- riVe by that time. The dependente or these gallant Month nails, mot hers, WI VOS and chil- dren, not withstanding the fact that the great hulk of the eoldlory are single men, number thousands. It is I nteresting to note what a beneficent government proposed to (TO for t he maimed Soldier who returns unfit for the vocation in which he was trained when he left off the plow to take up tho mord, and what will be done for those he has left behind him if he makes the supreme stied - FIRST FAIR HELD HALF CENTURY AGO GM'ERNOlt GREEN CLAY SNIITII WAS PREsIDEN'e OE EARLY DAY PAID .‘ssociATION. Judge W. E. Cullen, Famous Pioneer Lawyer, Was secretary; raptitizt Higgins, Om bonnier of Missoula; a Divoctor; Did Not Encourage viral( During the season of the year when county fairs are beteg arranged for all over the state it is Interesting to rt.call that the first state fair was held nearly a quarter of it century ago. The facts \\ere unearthed re- cently by Pete the either of the Belema ltevord lierahl, alio found in the urchhes ot the Statelfistortcal Society the minute and cash hook of the NIontaita Agricultural, Nlechanical and Mineral Association, organized in 1858. It WaS Ile first state fair attemptee by the reseletits of the then terri- tory of Nloillana. Green Clay Smith, govornor of the territory at that li m o, wag pre,i,ket. and Judge \V. E. Yellen, a famous pioneer lawyer long gathered unto Ids fathers, was secretary. I . Fifty years have yelloWed (ho 'leaves of the book in which Secretary Cullen \knot+ his minutes out in a 'clear, legible hand, an art that has • heeti neglected siuce tho Introduction ; o f the I> pewriter. The ink him not Itaded and the ,written recerd stands out clearly. Some Famous The book reveala that the first meeting was held on March, 1868, a few months more than 50 years ago. At this first meeting there were present Governor Green Clay Smith, L. P. Williston, of Deer Lodge coun- ty; which mennt most of Montana In those days; James Tufts, of Mad- ison county; J. F. Forbin, father of two men who afterwards became die- tinguislied lawyers, and NV. E. Cul- len. officere were elected as follows: reett Clay Smith. president; \V. E. Cullen, secretary; Jamee King, treaserer; NVesloy E. Davie, J. F. For - his, W. I,. Irvin, Captain C. P. Dig- girIH, the founder of Missoula, W. L. N'antilberg, I. It. Campbell and Philip Thor p, directors. All of these men who sought to exploit the resources of the state by this fair, have passed Into the great beyond. Then follows a record of the meet- ings of the association at intervals, the appointment of a committee to solicit tenth; and to negotiate for fair grounds, erect buildings, and ar- range for a racing program and a premium list. Objected to Race Track. The written report indicates that the respencee wore prompt, and suf- ficient money was raised for the as- seelation's purposes. Ground near Ten Milo creek, a few mile. from Helena, was purchased, and a prem- ium list published. Prizes were of- fered for horses, mujes and cattle. Evidently the directors gave agricul- ture, since the state's 'greatest de- velopment, very littl consideration, as no prizes were offered for grains, grasses or vegetables. Even in those distant days there was objection to race track gambling. The only track in the neighborhood was owned by a woman rancher. She did not approve of racing, the track being an inheritance, Finally Gov- ernor Smith himself called on her. The woman was very much compli- mented by having the governor, who was a gracious, charming man, call on her, and when he asked her for her consent to allow racing on her track her objections molted away. The Montana Agriculturel, Me- chanical and Mineral Association flourished for a year or two and then went that way of all flesh. MISSOULA OFFICER DEAD WOUNDED AT CANTIGNY Lieutenant Colonel Robert J. Maxey, who was fatally wounded in the operations with the capture and defense of Cantigny, and who died a few days after the battle, was cited by Major Robert General L. Bullard for having \advanced with his first wave itt the face of heavy shell and machine-gun fire.\ His citation adds: \Ho was cool under fire and a dependable leader. Although fat- ally wounded he gave detailed direc- tions to his second in command as to just what to do and caused himself to be carried to the post of command of his regiment to give information to his regimentd1 commander that he considered very important before be- ing evacuated. This was under in- tense shell and machine gun fire.\ dlcapped, will be able to work and make a good salary, but whatever they earn the government will still pay them $1,200 a year for life. These are the broad aspects of compensation. The war insurance, offering as high as $10,000, payable, however, only in monthly payments over 20 years or more, will still fur- ther fortify compensation, for it cov- ers death and the t tel permanent disability from injuries received not only in the line of duty but in civil life after the war. As the \cripple\ is passing, so is the \pen lie will become as obsolete as the old soldiers' home, and other institutions and practie - s that world progress, is leaving in its wake. In industry there are not pensions but compensations. In the military it will be the same with the added rehabilitation for a new life. And this addition must soon be ex- tended to all who are handicapped whether In industry or in war; whether through accident or negli- gence. The state council of defense re- quests vigilant guard of all eleva- tors.