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KINGS OF SUGAR TRAK Wonderful Tale of the Development of One of the World's Great- est Monopolies. RAVEMEYERS) FIRST EFFORT. Out of Bakery Came Great Enter- prises and Absolute Control of Household Necessity. The story of sugar in the United limes is the history of the house of Havemeyer. It is one of the wonder tales of American industrial develop- ment. It is the story of a plodding beginning, a dogged determination coupled with an hereditary genius for the business, and finally of fruition in one of the greatest industrial mo- nopolies the world has ever seen, says Judson C. Welliver in Hampton's Mag- azine. ' The sugar trust is a monument to the genius of one man. Henry 0. Havemeyer. It is the consummation of the efforts of four generations of ancektral intimacy with sugar in this country and Germany. From the day when the Havemeyer family started its first refinery in America over a bentury ago, sugar has meant Have- meyer, and Havemeyer has meant sugar. Generation after generation the house of Havemeyer' has followed sugar in diplomacy, in politics, in industry, in commerce, in high finance. Out of the same blood, and .bone. and brain which created that first re- finery—so little and so primitive that It was called a bakery, and its pro- prietors lodged in rooms above the place where they worked- came also the conception of the American Sugar Refining Company. That corporation mobilized the scattered fragments of a demoralized industry, brought prof- its where bankruptcy had been, and in twenty years was able to build up a concern listing $130,000,000 of assets In its balance sheet. Beginning with possibly $9,000,000 of actual property and $10,000,000 of borrowed money, the present corpora- tion and its predecessor, the Sugar Refineries Company, since 1887 have earned . and paid In dividends just about $132,000,000. The sugar trust, about ten years ago, went into glucose, starch and all the various products of corn. A tre- mendous consolidation, under the Corn Products Company, was finally effected, which almost monopolized these lines of business, naturally and closely related to the sugar business. But there was a hitch in getting con- trol of one subsidiary company; the (sugar trust discovered that that sub- sidiary was In control of a no less doughty antagonist than Standard 011, and there was a sharp, sensational bat- tle between the house of Havemeyer and the house of Rockefeller. In the settlement, when the war was over, Standard Oil treated sugar as an equal; the Havemeyers were not only left 1.n undisputed control, but Henry 0. Havemeyer became a director in the National City Bank, the foremost engine of Standard 011 finance. Thus the sugar trust, with Its $130,- 000,000 of assets; the subsidiary beet sugar concerns it controls, with about $85,000,000 of capitalization; the Corn Products Company, with about $80,000,000 capital, and all the Stand- ard 011 family, ever thrifty, cheerful, and given much to works of education. charity and religion, have been brought together in a sweet accord. TO FLOOD TOWN SITE. @boohoo. Valley of Wyoming to Be Irrigated by the Governtnent. The little town of Marquette up In the Shoshone valley of Wyoming, is preparing to get a move on, for one of these days the ground on which it stands will be 100 feet under water; so the Marqueettettes are preparing for the day when the flood shall come and they will hoof it off to some more ele- vated plain. The cause of all thla trouble to Mar- quette and a few ranches In the neigh- borhood is Uncle Sam, who is prepar- ing to put a plug in the canyon be- tween Rattlesnake and Cedar moun- tains, where the Shoshone river roars through, and the result is going to he a great big pond four miles wide, the Pathfinder says. The governmeet wants to soak the soil , of about 105,000 acres of land for the people of that region, so what its now practically worthless will blossom and bring forth fruit, each tree and bush of its own kind. For three years the engineers have been hustling around out there getting things to go- ing and now they are going at a straight -ahead rate, and Wyoming is going to possess the highest dam In the, world. The place that the government picked out for building the great res- ervoir is an Ideal one, right between the great precipitous Rides of two mountains where they rise to a height of something over 2.000 feet. Here the water has been eareering and tum- bling through for ages while lands not far SIMI, were parch and useless It was Impossible to do anything In the chasm while the great sweep of waters passed through it. So the enestion was bow to divert the river temporarily from its course as the foundations of a &great concrete dam Oettiel be laid. There itaii DOUtillil to do but drill a tunnel of 600 feet through the side of the mountain and let the water run around the spot where the dam was to be built. Special roads had to be constructed for eight miles along the mountain aide where the slope was anywhere from 45 to 90 degrees. Every now and then a tunnel had to be dug so as to let the road proceed. Over this dan- gerous highway the machinery had to be hauled, but they suceeeded in get- ting there with it, and They did drill the tunnel through the mountain and sent the water foaming through a great tube, leaving the canyon dry. Then began the work of building in earnest. In order to get a rock bot- tom for the foundation of the dam. down, down, down went the engineers, until 87 feet below the river bed they found what they were seeking and be- gan to pour in the concrete. They have recently filled in the excavation and are now working on the portion of the dam which is to stand above the bed of the river. But It will be some time yet before this is done, for the great wall must rise more than 238 feet from the sur- face of that deep canyon, and with the 87 feet bele* that the total height will be a little over 325 fete. At the base the concrete plug in the canyon will be 198 feet thick, while at the top but ten feet. and when completed it will, with its 75,000 barrels of cement which will have been used, and its 90,000 tons of stone, present such strength that no pressure can bear it down. AFTER ELLIS ISLAND. Things That Happen to Some Pretty Immigrants la Aew York. Maybe you don't believe , these stor- ies of the \white slave\ traffic in New York. Think they are inspired by political bias, perhaps? Well, on the authority of a leader of a tough east side gang, the tenth has never been told. \Jimmy\—that isn't his name, but it will do—doesn't deal In the blood and flesh of women, nor do any of his men. Murder, perhaps—just plain, honest murder—they might not hesitate at; repeating is a worthy oc- cupation to them; highway robbery and burglary leaves no stain upon a man, In their manner of thinking. But the men of that gang are Irish to a man, almost, and the Irish protect women always. Naturally enough, \Jimmy\ Is not attacking the political system that makes his existence pos- sible. Ile is no reformer. But he isn't afraid to tell what he knows. \I'm not sayin' that politicians run this woman business,\ said Jimmy, ac- cording to the Cincinnati Times -Star New York correspondent. \But I'll tell you one thing I know and you can guess for yourself. Not three weeks ago there was a steamer load of dagos and flunkies come in. Some of thim young women was purty as flowers They was a coupler men in the steer- age that spots the girls that has no relatives here in Noo Yawk to raise a holler, and when the boat gets in they tips it off to the knuckle -nosed thief that they work for.\ Jimmy didn't call this person a thief. He used a stronger word—by far. \Thine girls goes troo Ellis isl- and and they is brought 4o th' bath- ery on their way uptown. Some of 'em goes peaceable, depindin' on the stories they'se told of good places waitin' for 'em at fine wages. But the purtiest of the bunch don't fall for thim yarns. She's go in' to some ?rinds of her's, she says, and she has their address. Well, what happens? Nawthin' much, only between the landin' stage, and the subway entrance a taxicab whirls up and this putty girl is thrown in and two men—then fellers call thimsilves men --they chokes her cries and you know what the rest of the story Is. And there's nothin' done. No report ever made to the police. No newspaper ever heard of It. And that purty, innocent, sweet-faced little girl Is lost—lost, I tell you. It'd be no good gettin' her hack now. Do you think they could have pulled that off without some one standin' in? Because I don't.\ Origin of \The Big Stlek.” The first association of Theodore Roosevelt with the phrase, \the big stick,\ dates from a speech delivered by him at Chicago in 1902. On that occasion he said: \There is a home- ly old adage whets runs, 'Speak soft- ly and carry a ,big stick, and you will go far.'\ The New York World, In an edito- rial published Sept. 29, 1904, revived the speech, contrasting it, in parallel columns, wth Roosevelt's pacific speech to the delegates of the Interparlia- mentary Peace Union, Sept. 24, 1904. The first cartoon embodying the \big stick\ Idea was published In the World of Oct. 12, 1904. It represented Roosevelt mountgd on a fiery steed, throwing a lasso around the flying Angel of Peace and carrying a cudgel bearing the words 'big stick\ upon It. It is interesting to notice the vary- ing changes in cartoons in the charac- ter of this stick. At first It was' sim- ply a long, round stick of uniform thickness. It later changed to the knotted club or bludgeon type, and now It is often seen with a spear pro- truding from the large end. This lat- ter form was derived from Roosevelt's expression, \My spear knows no brother.\ A marked contrast is shown in Roosevelt's emblem and the \mall- ed fist\ of 'Emperor William. Will. lam's - symbol typifies Power and Force —nothing else. Rocoevelt's \big stick.\ although formidable, means peace --but peace harked up by the \big stiek.\--Buoowts Magazine. Pure radium never has been pro- duced, the almost priceless metal al- ways being in combination, either a chloride (111 a bromide. The British government has organ- ized a special department in connec- tion with Its national physical labora- tory for the investigation of problems of aerial construction and navigation. An automatic time signal sent out from the Hamburg observatory by tele- phone to all instruments connected with the system of that city has been heard as far as Copenhagen and Paris, In the spring of 1909 seventeen American robin redbreasts, male and female, after being confined for a time in a large aviary near Guildford, in Surrey, England, were set at liberty. They built nests In the surrounding trees, and in a short time there were some thirty young robins added to the colony. Efforts are being made to re- tain them in the neighborhood dur- ing the winter, and it is hoped that thus the American redbreast may be- come a permanent addition to the bird population of England. The Electrician notes some interest. lug facia about the ventilation of the great Simplon tunnel. The change from steam to electric traction has not altered the arrangements for venni*. then. The two entrances, at Brigue, Switzerland, and 'Belle, Italy, are cov- ered, except at the Moment when a train enters or leaves, by huge cloth screens, which are automatically raised and lowered by electricity. Two electric fans, nearly ten feet In di- ameter, and making 350 turns per min- ute, drive air into the tunnel at Brigue at the rate of 1,000 liters per second, and a similar station at Iselle draws air from the tunnel. The air. pressure on the screen at Brigue amounts to four kilograms per square meter, while on the screen at Isella the pressure Is twelve kilograms per square meter. Max Bermann of Budapest has re- cently shown that the spark rays made by the incandescent particles thrown off from iron and steel when put upon an emery wheel afford a means of test- ing the composition of the metals. Carbon steels, manganese steel, and steels containing tungsten and nickel, each give a characteristic spark, of different forms and colors, which are easily distinguishable. The form of the spark picture changes with the quantity of carbon. Even so slight a difference as .01 per cent of carbon, Mr. Hermann says, can be detected In this manner. Pointed branching lines denote carbon steel; tool steel shows the appearance of \blossom\ on the branches; tungsten steel gives red. streaked rays and shining points, \with Iltle balls thrown out of the formation,\ and \an explosion appear- ance in the articulation\ denotes the presence of molybdenum, vanadium or titanium. COW IN A PARLOR. It Took P ion of the House When the Family Wa. Away. The placidity of the cow has been a proverb for all time. That she Is endowed with a good bump of the \curiosity that killed a eat\ a subur- banite learned to his sorrow one day this summer. Mr. Blank lives in the east end with his family of wife and five children, the Louisville Times says. They have a cow that is a pet, having been raised from babyhood and now furnishing all the lacteal fluid and by-products used by the family. Not so long since, after Blank had come in town for the day, Mrs. Blank took the children and went for a day's outing to a neighboring suburb, leav- ing the house (supposedly) carefully closed and -the cow In her stable. But missing familiar forms and the sounds Of domestic activity, she grew lone- some and managed to escape the in. closure and came Into the yard and proceeded to investigate. She climbed the steps to the back porch, consumed three loaves of bread left by the bak- er's boy. She suceeeded In getting the kitchen door open, where he devoured all but the graniteware part of a three' pound crock of butter. Her appetite still unappeaaed, she also ate the fancy paper off the shelves, and in so doing pulled down all the tinware and scattered it about the floor. She could not work the combination on the ice -box, so moved on through the dining room into the sitting room. Mr. Blank had the day before purchased four new shirts at $1.60 each, and these had been sent home and were left In a bundle on the couch. She \considered\ these, ate all but a few fragments, and went on her way. She wrecked chairs, and even a bed, and upset the contents of tables by pulling at and eating the Covers. When the family came hack late that evening an affectionate \moo\ of welcome greeted them from the cow, her head thrust through the parlor window. Mr. Blank said It took ten men and a derrick to get the row out of the house, and the cost of repairing damages; would purehase enough milk and butter for the family tor a year. \sane care.\ There's a cow for sale; she's no longer a big hit in the fam- ily. People never have confidence In a Big Talker. They ltuow his stet, - month must be cut dowft, but they can lever tell how much. ROOSEVELT, TM NIMROD \Pra Pbor lie Said., bat Here Is a Denial. The caravan headed for Sir Alfred l'ease's farm on the Atilt River, says Warrington Dawson, correspondent with the Roosevelt party in Hamp- ton's. This farm contains more game, and a greater variety, than any other piece of earth owned by one man in the world. Roosevelt and his party were to be the guests of Sir Alfred Ea long as they cared to stay. All over the country could be seen the various spoors of the different game. Kermit got the first shot. About 200 yards ahead of him a fine buck darted into view and, like a flash, Kermit fired and the handsome beast fell dead. Col. Roosevelt smiled, examined the bolt of his Springfield rifle, and shoved the safety over in a way that indicated his intentions toward the next inhabitant of the jun- gle that showed up. He had not long to waik to try his luck. A small herd of wildebeeste, with shaggy manes and vicious horns, galloped across the track. Col. Roosevelt spurred his horse into a favorable position out of range of the caravan. As of one accord every man, white and black, stood still and watched. Roosevelt's Springfield went to his shoulder, and crack! crack! and down went two of the bounding wildebeeste. The night before the ,mrty started on safari, when all were around the camp fire, the ex president had de- clared that he was a very poor shot. When Cunningham° saw the two a ildebeestes drop in their tracks he cried with a smile on his bewhisker- ed face: \Pretty bad shooting, that, eh, colonel? You pulled our legs beautifully last night.\ The colonel smiled, too, and without comment rode over to watch the shikarees skin the game. A little later in the day a beautiful Thompson's gazelle stood out on the open, presenting a „fine target, al- though at very long range, Col. Roosevelt got off his horse and took a kneeling shot, with the result that the gazelle is now being stuffed for the Smithsonian collection. JEWELS OF GREAT PRICE. Necklace Worth Half a Million Owned by Duchess of Hamilton. Mary, duchess of Hamilton, Is now 64 years old, but still a beautiful and robust matron, and she still shines brightly among the galaxy of Anglo- Saxon belles at the court of St. James. As everybody knows, she is the ,mother of Lady Graham, the richest woman in the united kingdom, but it Is not generally known that the duch- ess has in her own right almost as large a fortune as was left to her daughter, so she can well afford to assuage her thirst for fine jewels. Henri Chevalier says in the Cincinnati Enquirer. She is the possessor of and wears on state occasions a pearl neck- lace worth $500.900. It is made up of black pearls, not of gray, but of green luster, the latter being by far the most valuable. Wonderful jewels of this sort are in the possession of royalty and the no- bility. Some of the pearls on the duchess of Marlborough's much -talked - of rope are worth $5,000 apiece. Lady Denman has a rope of 40J0 pearls, each of which Is said to have cost $750. Some few years ago a necklace com- posed of 412 pearls, in eight rows, was sold for $39,100. The late Lady Hen- ry Lennox's pearl necklace fetched, I believe. over $100,000, and the late Empress Frederick of Germany pos- sessed a one -row necklace of thirty- two pearls worth at least 1200,000. This is really made up of three neck- laces, each of historic interest One belonging to the ex -queen of Naples, sister of the late empress of Austria; the second was once the property of a Spanish grandee, and the third was formerly owned by the ex -Empress Eu- gene. Pearls are possessed in plenty by some of the Indian princes. The Ma- harajah Gaekwar of liaroda owns a necklace of immense pearls and emer- alds, splendidly set, and of priceless value. Behind the Scenes. A negro preacher In a Georgia town was edified on onoecasion by the re citai,,of a dream had by a member of hia church. \I was a-dreamin' all dls time,\ said the narrator,-\dat I was in Ole Satan's dorninione. I tell you, pahson, dat was shore a bad dream!\ \Was dare any white men dare?\ asked the dusky divine. \Shore dere was—plenty of 'ern,\ the other hastened to assure his mire \What was day a -cloth'?\ \Ebery one of 'ern,\ was the an swer, \was a-holdln' a eullud pusson between him an' de fire! \—Harper'. Weekly. Labor Before Helmets. Everyone who wills to attain to the rest of contemplation must first dili- gently lead a life of labor. Remem- ber that true repose is the product of the exercise of virtues, as fruits are formed from flowers.—St. Bernard. Too Good to Bit Missed. -Comedian — I can't go on for a Mill- ets, Sir, I feel funny. Manager — Fenny! Great Scott, man! Go on at once and make the most of it while It iaste.—Stray Stories. • I Voice from the well...Help! Help ; rm drOwning! Jove! how beastly later., estlas.—TheTatler. No More Wallu.stg. What the inventor imps will be a great boon to small farmers, as the Invention, it is claimed, will do the work of six horses, is in use In Cali- fornia, 'but It can be eAapted to any locality. It is a gasoline tractor and Is a help in plowing, harrowing and harvesting. It will twee running' as long as it is fed gasoline. Built with a two cylinder motor, the tractor has plenty of power. It has two speeds, forward and reverse, and is easily operated from an exten- THE IIOR5ELES8 CULTIVATOR. slon seat, from much the same posi- tion a driver would occupy with his team. It Is particularly an orchard tractor, having low, wide wheels, narrow tread, short wheel base and short turn- ing rakilus. A special feature is that the tractor may be driven from the seat of the ordinary wheel plow or harrow, enabling one man to drive and operate the levers of this plow and cultivator with perfect ease and con- venience. It is a one man machine, light in weight, with all control levers conveniently arranged. To obtain the greatest efficiency the front wheels are made the traction wheels; also the steering wheels. In the rear are smaller plain wheels, close together, with flanges to hold against side slipping, used simply as trailers, to which the plow, cultivator, harrow or farm wagon is hitched the same as though coupled to the small wheels used on the rear of the ordi- nary tongue when plowing with a team. The power plant is built in a stiff steel frame, mounted rigidly to the main axle, and is composed of a two cylinder opposed engine of standard make, rated at twenty-four horse- oower. Thumps In Pigs. Thumps In pigs Is caused by • sur- plus of fat and a lack of exercise. The thumping is due to violent beating of the heart, causing shaking movement of the sides and flanks of the animal. Often it is so violent that the whole body trembles and shakes with the movements. In aggravated cases the pig is weak and uncertain in his walk, and lies down most of the time. Before death the nose, ears and other parts of the body become red and pur- ple with congested blood, due to weak circulation. Advanced cases of the thumps are difficult to cure. When first symptoms are noticed reduce the bedding if there I. much In their sleeping quarters; reduce the feed and compel time pig to exercise in the open air. Fresh air will purify the blood and exercise will promote circulation. When pigs be- come fat and lazy they will Ile In bed a great part of the time, often com- pletely covered with bedding, so that they breathe impure air and dust This poisons the blood and reduces the viteilty in general, which, with compression of the heart with surplus fat, causes the malady. In the spring or summer when pas- ture Is good it -Is well to change pas- ture of hogs afflicted with the thurnps so that they will be Induced to take more exercise and eat green food. Re- duce heavy feeding and keep the bowels of the animal loose by doses of castor oil. A little turpentine in the slop or drinking water Is said to be good. Cheek -Rein on Horses. When a horse stumbles he is far less likely to go down when his head is left free. In England, where they are far ahead of us in everything per- taining to horses, the check -rein has been abolished, the last surrender be- ing that of the artillery and commis- sariat trains cf the British army, the change having been made by Sir George Bourgoyne, the late comman der -in -chief, and he testifies. to the ben. 'dotal results attending it. A Valuable Cqw. Grace Fayne IL's Haw teed a Hol- stein•Fresian cow, value. at $8.000, died recently at the Hartoy A. Moyer Farm, just north of Syracuse, N. Y., from pneumonia.. The animal was heav- ily insured and held the world's but- ter record of 35.66 ponnds of butter In one week and Vie thirty -day record of 184.18 pounds. )She broke a former record of 35 .2 pounds for a week. One t••• calves sold recently tar $1.000 Snails and Sing.. A woman gardener wrote to State Zoologist H. A. Surface at Harrisburg. Pa., asking for instructions how to overcome the snails in her garden. Prof. Surface replied: \Snails and slugs, although very great and seri- ous garden pests, especially where the gardens are damp and the vegetation rank, can be prevented by the use of an impassable barrier of powdery sub- stance around the beds of plants to be protected. Soot is excellent for this, although dry ashes will serve the purpose, and air -slaked lime will be found very good. Also, you can kill them by dusting them with some freshly slaked lime mixed with parts green, using about thirty parts of the lime to ono part of the parts green, which is dusted abundantly over their bodies. Also dusting their food plants with flour and pares green will de- stroy them. Another method is to poi- son some leaves of plants of which they are particularly fond, and put this where the snails will find and eat them and be destroyed. Another meth- od is to place boards loosely on the ground, as traps, and In the morning examine them and pick out and gath- er the snails and brush them into a. vessel containing salt, which will kill them. If the ground is dry and crack- ed pour salt water into the cracks and thus destroy them. The barriers mentioned above should be kept dry, or renewed every time after a rata. Keep the vegetatton around the gar- den mowed low, or keep the ground cultivated, so that these pests will not find suitable places where they car multiply.\ Newest Ponthole Auger. An invention that will be found use ful by fence -makers and farmers gen- erally, Is the post -hole auger desigueds lir by a Michigan man. This. implement digs a narrow, fence or other post hole and digs it quickly. In appear- ance the auger resembles a clean hole, just the right diameter for a huge auger of the ordinary carpen- ter's kit. It is pressed down into the earth, the jaws taking in the amount of dirt a post would replace, and then withdrawn, bringing up the dirt Just as a dredger would. Indeed, the implement works much like a dredging machine The advantage of auger is in the small. clean hole it makes. Without it a post hale must be dug with a spade and the smallest spade not only makes a hole too big, but one that necessarily slants from the rim to the bottom and must be filled again. It is easy to under- stand that a post will stand much more firmly In a hole that does not. have to be filled in. Selecting Seed Corn. In gathering the corn crop, it is well to look out for next year's seed. Next to good soil and good cultivation, Is. good seed. Do not place too much con- fidence In abnormal individual ears. lect good ears from rows which pro- duce a large yield. And when seed- ing time comes next year, do not rely too much on the character of the seed With well-prepared soil and thorough culture, a large crop of corn can be. grown from almost any kind of seed, whicla will germinate, but good seed will Increase the yield, and will fully repay the trouble and cost of °Maim- ing It. homemade Peed Cotter. Here is a feed cutter which anyone can make from a little cheap lumber. The knife. a, is a common broad at. Which most farm: era have. Put a.. handle In, ate shown, and build a • frame of 212 -inch hard wood and Inch boards. The end of the handle le fas- tened to the stand- ard at h with a piece of strap iron. Another piece of strap iron, c, acts as a guard and keeps the ax close to the edge of the box.—Farm and Homo Ma CUTTING VORAO The Poultry Yard. Eighteen hens that were fed milt last winter laid more eggs than 100. fed on cut hone and meat. A flock might just as well roost In trees as In a house full of cracks and holes, which chills the birds in spots and poduces bad colds, Some people are willing to pay an extra price for eggs on one color. Many people get a cent or more a Wi- en for sorting their hen fruit accord.. log to size end oolor. Take no chances by having toe many °Mekong together in one flock. If you see they are getting to be crowded In their winter quarters, make thrift and health a certainty by dividing them up. or selling earner of them. You may have an Idea that poultry can hunt their own grit. You are wroag. Grit is as essential as feed. (let a grit box, fill it with crushed ° rock and oysterohell, and hang it on th4 wall where MO will not be. tehed Into it.--Viirm Jourosi • • Is S