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S San ers County Democrat VOLUME I. PLAINS. MONTANA, FRIDAY, JULY 29, 1910. NUMBER 41 Northwest Development News WASHINGTON IDAHO MONTANA OREGON Pacific Monthly, August Number WASHINGTON. Diversified Agricultural Resources. The Washington fanner may choose practically any type of agriculture that he desires. The diversity of agricul- ture is duo to the great difference in altitude, rainfall and soil to be found in the state, and to the great variety of natural vegetation. The rainfall in the most arid portions of the state is only from five to eight inches per year, while at points on the northwest coast a precipitation of ten feet is re- ported. Land at every elevation from sea level to the snow line in the Cas- cades, is farmed; and every quality of soil from marsh -bog and heavy clay to loose sand is cultivated. The cultivation of the semi -arid lands of eastern Washington, whicn comprise about three -fifths of the total area of the state, is comparatively re- cent, following the construction of the transcontinental railways. The early settlers located in the western humid section of the state, where they chose the beautiful valleys and protected spots. The 'western Washington farmer often began as a logger or a fisher- man, since logging and fishing were two of the earliest industries of the state and two of the present greatest. The logged -off lands were also transformed into dairy farms, and dairying is now one of the great industries. Later ex- periments proved the heavy lands suit- able for growing small fruits; and the beaver -dam lands of the former swamps have been utilized as unexcelled cel- ery -growing land. Cranberries are now grown in former swamps, and straw- berries on the clay hillsides. The large Puget sound cities and Alaska afford a nearby market for the product of humid western Washington. The sec- tion is fast being developed into a di- versified farming, market -gardening, orchard Section, and the tendency is toward the small intensely cultivated farm. Fruit, grain and hay are the chief ag- ricultural products of eastern Wash- ington. This section of the state is comprised largely of treeless prairies and rolling hills. The soil is of vol- canic ash and practically inexhaustible under di versified crops and prolate methods of cultivation. The past ten- dency has been toward large wheat farms, and larger stock rancher', but the land is becoming more valuable for di- versified crops and fruit -growing, so there is a decided movement toward subdivision into tracts varying from five to forty acres. Great irrigation projects are being developed in this part of the state, and land values have advanced very rapidly in the well- known fruit -growing sections that often return a profit of $1,000 an acre per year. With railway extensions and the development of dry -farming practices new areas of land are being brought into cultivation. Washington has a wonderful variety of resources, afford- ing many opportunities to homeseekers and capitalists. A comprehensive sum- mary of the land, timber, mineral and water wealth of the state may be found in a book entitled \A Review of the Resources and Industries of Washing- ton,\ published and gratuitously dis- tributed by the state bureau of sta- tistics, agriculture and immigration at Olympia. Along North Bank. During the past three or four months there has been much orchard develop- ment along the \North Bank\ rail- road. The apricot, European grapes, such as Tokay and Malaga, and the almond industries are soon to receive an im- petus in the northwest. For years it ham been known the( certain parts of (Continued Next Week.) IDAHO. 6,000 -Acre Apple Orchard. It is announced that an orchard com- pany, composed chiefly of Chicago cap- italists, is engaged in planting, in the Council valley, about fifty miles from Weiser, an apple orchard of 6,000 acres. Arrangements are reported completed for the expenditure of $3,- 000,000 in the project. Eighty thou- sand trees have already been planted on the lands, and between 2,000 and 3,000 acres are to be planted this fall. Phis large orchards company plans to erect a $30,000 hotel, a school house and a dub bowie. The lands are lo- cated on a new irrigation project that will receive water for the first time next year. 200 -Mile Central Idaho Railway. That the construction of the 200 - mile railway of the Harriman system through central Idaho will begin this year, is the announcement recently made. This road will parallel the Ore- gon Short Line from a point west of Pocatello, through Richfield and Camas prairie, and will be extended through Boise. Resources of Idaho. Between 6,500,000 and 10,000,000 acres of land will be reclaimed, ulti- mately, in Idaho, according to a recent report issued by the state commissioner of immigration. This would be about one -tenth of the total estimated irri- gable area of the entire United States. During the past ten years 2,478,856 acres of laud have been appropriated under the terms of thejCarey act, ac- cording to this authority, the estimated cost of its reclamation being $67,750,- 000. In addition 139,000 acres are be- ing reclaimed by private projects at a cost of $2,780,000. Eleven irrigation districts will also provide water for 346,000 acres at a total ' estimated cost of $1,730,000. Under the terms of the United States reclamation service, 480,- 000 acres of land have been withdrawn for the Aliaidgks and Boise -Payette projects. The total cost of these projects will be about $30,000,000, 20 per cent of all of the work having been completed. The state of Idaho is 480 miles long, and the width varies from forty-four to 350 miles. Approximately 20,000,000 of the 54,000,000 acres within the state are said to be still unappropriated and open to entry. All but 1,000,000 acres of this land is in the southern semi- arid and arid portion of the state. It as estimated that 10,000,000 of the 19,- 000,000 acres in southern Idaho are suitable for dry farming. Great areal' of dry -farming land have been taken up during the past few years, and the homesteader must usually go a consid- erable distance from present railway extensions. The climate of Idaho is characterized by its many days of sun- shine. A diversity of mountains, plains and valleys, and a humid northern por- tion, give the state a variety of agri- cultural and horticultural products. Every variety of crop known to the temperate regions may be grown, it is said, excepting the citrus and other fruit common to the sub -tropics. In general, the state has 21,000,000 acres of agricultural land, 20,000,000 acres of timber land, 5,000,000 acres of mineral land and 8,000,000 acres of grazing land. Wheat is the most valu- able grain crop, with oats, barley, corn, and rye the other moss important crops, according to 1909 reports of yield. Sugar beets, potatoes and hay are also important crops. The total value of the eight chief agricultural crops for 1909 was $32,320,000. The fruit crops for last year were valued at $7,000,- 000, and the livestock output at $9,000,000. SENATOR CUMMINS TALKED ON CANNON- ALDRIC El REGIME. CRITICIZED THEM FOR ACTION IN SUPPORT OF WICKER SHAM'S R. R. BILL. Senator Albert B. Cummins of lown, in his speech before the Chautauqua at Peabody, Kan., Saturday, asserted that Speetor Aldrich and Speaker Cannon were traitors to their party, if not to the country, whan they gave their rap- port to the Wickersham railroad bill an it came from the attorney general's °Mee and crethanded that it go through congress. \That bill was a direct repudiation of the republiean party platform of 1908, and it was directly in the inter - (Continued Next Week.) - - eats of the railroads and sot is the interest of the great common people of the country,\ said Senator Cummins. 'Speaker Cannon and Senator Aldrich, and men of their class, seem to think the republican party was formed to make men rich. I think it was born to make men free. They think it was born to make Millionaires; I believe it was born to drive misery out of this country. \Senfttor Aldrich has vigorously op- posed all regulation of the railroads by congress ever since the interstate commerce commission was introduced in 1887. I was born and always have been a republican, but I can not and will not follow the leadership of a traitor to his party and the people.\ Senator Cummins spoke in a big tent where the heat was intense, but he continued his address for two hours to a large audience. MONTANA. New Railway Developments. More than 600 miles or new railway track are to be laid in Montana at a cost of about $25,000,000, is the an- nouncement made recently by promi nent railway officials. Right of way has been secured for the greater part of this new mileage, and a number of parties of surveyors are in the field lo- cating the remainder of the mileage to be constructed. One of the most important of the new lines is to be c,oustructed as a cut-off for the North- ern Pacific, extending from Glendive to Helena, a distance of 350 miles. This road will pass through Dawson, Fergus and Meager counties, which is a new and sparsely settled section offering many opportunities for homeseekere. The chief purpose for the construction of this new line is to give a more di- rect route from St. Paul to the Coast, and the new road will be used chiefly for mail and fast freight. This Toad will parallel the Milwaukee road from Miles City to Meager, but at an aver- age distance of twenty-five miles. En connection with the building of this 350 -mile cut-off at an estimated cost of $10,000,000, auuouncement is made that the tailway company will colonize large tracts of their lands. It is their policy to keep these lands out of the hands of speculators as much as possible. To indicate the rapid settlement of Mon- tana, the president of the Northern l'acific states that 630,000 acres, from the total of 834,000 acres that had been disposed of during the ten months' periods ending March 31, were in Mon- tana. It is also announced that the Great Northern will construct a road south- easterly from Mondak to Lewistown, a distance Of 268 miles. Right of way has been secured for this road, and IDIT - veyors are in the field selecting the best route for a further extension of this road from Lewistown to Helena, an ad- ditional distaaans of more than ICA, miles. The estimated cost of this road is from twelve to fifteen millions. In addition to these two lines that are definitely projected, the Milwaukee sys- tem is reported actively at work on a branch line from Melstone through Lewistown to Great Falls. These new railway lines will give transportation to a very large territory in Montana and will be the means of rapid develop ment, for both the Hill and the Milwau- kee systems are \colonizing\ roads. These new extensions will give great importance to the several railway - center cities that they will create, es- pecially Helena, Lewistown and Great Falls. (Continued Next Week.) OREGON. MINNESOTA HAS BIG CASH SURPLUS So Much Money in State Treasury That Taxes May Be Diecontinued —How It Was Done. Citizens of Minnesota may not be called upon to pay taxes next yea. At present the treasury of the state is groaning under the burden of a surplus which has never been duplicated. On October 1 there will be nearly $4,000,000 in the state treasury. Oc- tober 1, 1999, there was approximately $2,000,000 in the treasury. The usual ainount of money in the state's cash box has come about through the successful settlements of cases which have netted the common- wealth large sums of money. The largest of these items came from the settlement of the lumber cases, the gross earning tax eases, the Kennedy inheritance tax case, and others. Not only have large sums of money come into the treasury, but they will result in constantly, augmenting streams of gold in the direction of the state's coffers so that Minnesota bids fair to become a state unique in the history of taxation—a state that may find it not necessary to tax its people I cent for the general maintenance of state government. Reforestation of Mountains. During the past few months 1,350 acres of denuded forest lauds of the Hebo district of the Coast mountains in Oregon have been replanted by the United States forestry service. Sev- eral thousand additional acres will be reforested this fall, and it is the plan of the forestry service to replant all of the burned -over areas of the coast mountains and other Oregon reserves, as noon as possible. A force of forty men were able to seed the 1,350 acres in the ilebo district in six weeks, the total estimated cost of the reforestation being two dollars and a half an acre. The seeds may he purchased in seed stores at a cost of a dollar and forty cents a pound, though it is found more economical in some cases for the forest rangers and guards to gather and thresh the 'weds them- selves. The seeds were planted in Will Hitchcock R , e4nl Close observers of the trend of af- fatPs in the administration art, begin- ning to wonder how soon after his re- turn from Europe Postmaster General Frank H. Hitchcock will fender him resignation, (Continued Next Week.) IN FOREST LAND CONTESTS. New Order to Protect Settlers and Government. In order to protect the interests of the government as well as those of the settlers and other claimans of land within the national forests the de partments of the interior and agri- culture have entered into a co- operative program that will govern the prosecution of contested cases. Under its terms both the general land office and the forest service will be adequately represented at the hear- ings of the registers and receivers of laud offices in all cases involving for- est lands. The department of agri- culture is given the same right as a private contestant to appeal to the sec- retary of the interior from any decis- ion rendered by the commissioner of the general land office. Instructions have been issued to the field officers of the forest service di- recting that DO Contests be initiated by the government for slight and techni• cal noncompliabce with the law by claimants who have entered lands in the national forests in good faith. When it is apparent, however, that an entry is merely a subterfuge to acquire title to the timber lands or to control water, water power sites or rights of way, the instructions state, a contest should be begun even if the technical requirements of the la* appear to have been fulfilled. Mystery fn Smith Tragedy. Washington, D. C.—The utmost my, tery hides the identity of the per- son who fired the shot which killed Benjamin T. Smith, son of Addison Smith of Boise, Idaho, secretary to Senator Heyburn. At /east a dozen boys and girls and several grown per sons were present at the wharf when a rifle shot was heard and young Smith fell dying, and yet not r .one of them, according to the stories told by the witnesses, is able to say who held the gun at the time. The boy's father preferred not to know the identity of the girl re- sponsible for the tragedy. Try to Derail Fast Train. h Bend, Ind., July 24.—Strikers pted to derail eastbound passenger No, 8 this afternoon at Oliver., first station at which Grand Trunk etbound train. stop in panning hrtmgh Routh Bend. The engineer of e train noticed the turned switeb sig- ned, in time to stop his train and there by probably prevented injitry if not loes of life to the passengers. Rioting in the meal yards began last night .and has been epasincelie today. . TAFT AND ROOSEVELT - Will Write Letters to the People Tell lng Why Republicans Should Be Kept in Power. Washington, July 26.—President Taft and former President Roosevelt have been asked by managers of the repub- lican congressional campaign to write letters explaining why, in their judg- ment, the voters of the country should continue the republican party in power. President Taft has promised to do so. Colonel Roosevelt has not disclosed what action he will take. Swiped a Million. Louisville, Ky.—August Ropke, as - militant secretary and bookkeeper of the Fidelity Trust company, is believed to have made away with $1,140,000, the entire surplus of the concern, accord- ing to a statement made by John W. Barr, president of the company. Ropke has been in jail for 10 days, unable to furnish bail in the sum of $25,000. He was a heavy speculator and lost large sums, it is said, in Wall street and on the Chicago Board of Trade. SUMMARY OF NEWS SHORT ITEMS CLIPPED FROM DAILIES. NEARLY ALL PARTS OF THE WORLD ARE REPRIMENTED HEREWITH. At Wichita the government thermom- eter registered 131 in the sun and 103 in the shade. President Taft is suffering from a severely strained right ankle while vis- iting in Maine. More than 10,000 men are on a strike on large buildings in the course of con- struction at Chicago. With a maximum temperature of 96 and humidity at 40, the hottest day of the year was recorded for Kansas City Saturday. All the available men and boys in Deadwood, S. D., are out fighting a large forest lire that is raging less than a mile uorth .of town. The compressor plant building at the No. 10 mine of the Consolidated Smel- ter company near Phoenix, B. C., aud its contents were destroyed by fire Sat- urday. Anna and Edith Hill of Highland Park, N. J., sisters, and Gordon Silver - thorn° of Newark, N. J., were drowned in the Raritan bay recently while swimming. W. J. Bryan makes a general denial of the story sent out from Lincoln, Neb., that he would lead a bolt from the democratic convention in Nebraska and organize a rump convention. A terrific cyclone swept over the dis- trict west of Milan Saturday, doing great damage to the towns of Sarouno, Rovellasco and Lonate Pozzolo. It is estimated that 25 persons were killed and injured. Within the sight of the lights of Manhattan, four men held up a carload of immigrants Saturday night and robbed thew of perhaps $500 in cash, while their train was standing at the West Shore terminal at Weehawken, N. J. Some 50,000 Polish -Americans among the 400,000 or more in the metropolitan district, New York, were present at Grant City, Staten island, to observe the 500th anniversary of the battle of Grunewald, which was one of the great- est events in the history of the Sla- vonic race. Albuquerque, N. M.—George Fifer, aged 11, and his brother Frank, 13, while swimming in the Gila river, near Red Rock, were drowned in a quick- sand hole. Frank stepped into the hole. George went to his aid, pulling on the arm of his brother when he, too, slipped in. Swinton Permater, Walter Cummings and E. L. Burchfield, all white men, were arrested and lodged in the Louis- ville (Miss.) jail under suspicion of assaulting and murdering Miss Jane Sharpe, 16 -year -old daughter of Wil- liam Sharpe, a planter living near Rural Hill. Dr. Chansing Hatred Chase Jordan, whe, figured in the Swope poison case, died at his office in lemmas City Sat- urday. Ile is said to have receive , ' $10,000 for his professional services to Mrs. Igen 0. and Chrisman Swope, the latter f whom Dr. Hyde is charged with\ poisoning. His death was due to bronchitis. Store Failures. The Merchants' Index, of Denver, Colorado, prints some interesting facts on store failures in the United states, during the month of June, which show a great decrease over June, 1909. The official figures are as follows: General Stores ---June, 1910, 69; lia- bilities, $433,770; June, 1909, 110; lia- bilities, $696,490. • Grocery Stores --June, 1910, 151; lia• bilities, $451,827; June, 1909, 228; lia- bilities, $868,392. In both lines June, 1910, Saw the smallest number of failures for five years. Don't Like Monroe Doctrine. Buenos Ayree. Attempts made pri- vatisly by the Brazilian delegates to the Pan American congress to extend the Monroe doctrine an a new deelara• time of all the American nations seem not to have had a favorable reception here. The Argentine delegates do not oppose the Monroe doctrine, but do not desire to modify the program as al- ready arrenked by the introduction of complicated questions. WOMEN DOWN ON POLICE. Suffrage Demonstration in London Is 'OP Spectacular. Loudon.—Half a million women marched in a body to Hyde park Sat- urday afternoon in protest against tha action of the government in shelving the franchise bill, granting the ballot to women with proper qualifications. This was the most spectacular incident in the English suffrage movement. Thousands looked on and cheerd while the women waved flags and cheered for the \cause.' Many became hys- terical in their excitement. Many women took part. Miss Maude Roosevelt second cousin of Theodore Roosevelt, made a speech, and Alice Davidson of Columbia university was also in line. Professor Martin of Leland Stanford university spoke. Mrs. 0. P. Belmont was advertised as a speaker, but she slipped away from London and went to Paris on the plea that a relative was ill. The police were unable to handle the crowd. A number of the foot police were bowled over and nearly trampled to death before they could be rescued by mounted troops, The Judging of Tea. How many retail grocers can judge teas for themselves? How many can judge by the dry leaf or the cup thp difference between India, China, Java or Ceylon teat While the good reputation of count- less tea houses and wholesale grocers from whom the retailer buys his tea stocks does not make this knowledge absolutely necessary either for his own protection or that of his customers still it is a valuable addition to the infor- mation which goes to make up selling ability and tends to make him a more successful retail merchant, says Chicago Retailers Journal. Tea, usually is judged first by the eye, next by the feel, then by the smell and finally by the taste, the final and critical test being by the palate. It is not generally realized by the uninitiated that the tea leaf is a large one and if allowed to grow to its full size will often be six, eight or even nine inches long. In India and Ceylon gardens, where there are frequent pluck- ing., the young leaves only are plucked and the large, coarse ones loft to nour- ish the shrub. Even under fairly close plucking, however, leaves of three or four inches long are frequently brought into the factory and the whole of the plucking is dealt with together. Think Rawn Was Murdered. Chicago.—The results of the secret investigation of the death of Ira 0. Hawn, president of the Monon route, began within a few hours after he died Wednesday morning, July 20, from ii bullet wound, in now known. William C. Brown, president of the New York Central lines, visiting in Chicago, in discussing the death of Mr. RAIIID, said: \Ira 0. Hawn was n fearless man and one who would not take his own life to avoid personal danger or trouble. I have known him since boy- hood.\ Grand Trunk Strike. Montreal,-- The attempts of MacKen- zie King, minister of labor, to effect settlement of the Grand Trunk strike have fallen through, at leant for the prenent, the drank Trunk management taking the view that the time for arbi- tration ban panned and all that the corn pany requires in order to resume the full operation of the road is the pro- tection of its new men to which it is legally entitled. The young shoots or tips are graded out witii all the smallest tea and with the most even Pekoes and broken Pe- koes. When samples are lightened up by little bright golden tips this is an evidence that the tea is young. Tip, however, is not always a sign of quality as soft, poor tea grown in low districts produces plenty of tippy orange Pekot and golden orange Pekoe, which ma) be absolute rubbish in the cup. Tip ii to be found in orange Pekoe, broken orange Pekoe, Pekoe tannings and Pe- koe dust. In judging tea by the eye one should appreciate and .value tips and should look for a closely twisted, oven well - made leaf and avoid stalks, sticks and open brown leaf. Color should be well looked after and soft gray or black leaf and tips of golden color chosen. Autumn flavored teas, as Indians are called which arrive from the end of December to March, usually have the young leaves of a red or brown color. A light, open, spongy leaf should be avoided. A well -twisted, evenly made, heavy loaf is always an advantage as teas should be spooned into the pot and the greater the weight that goes in with each spoon the better the brew. In testing tea by the sense of smell one should not either from the nose or mouth, breathe into a sample, but should rather inhale gently and try to detect the flavor, richness and fresh- ness, Over -fired and highly-burnt teas' suit very few districts and are usually objectionable. Every foreign flavor should be avoided. The habit of smell- ing samples of the kind intended to be bought should be cultrvared as the sense of smell is keen and will often detect objectionable features where other tests will not. In- testing tea by the taste it is im- portant that an equal amount of large and small leaf be used and that this should catch the water am it gets to boiling fully. The brew should be al- lowed to stand for five or six minutes and while the liquor is cooling the smell of the infused leaves carefully noted. The color of the infused leaf is, as a rule, a never failing test of quality. An even bright light livery eolor should be looked for, as the lighter the in fused leaf, the better the quality, as a rule. The darker it is the poorer the quality. Flavor, strength and pungency or grip are the points to look for in good tea. Strength in- the cup generally .:opth of color of the liquor, but there Is also another element to be sought that is a riehness an•I roundness of flavor which comes out well with the addition of milk and sugar. Stop Customs Frauds. The treasury department is bent on ferreting out frauds af the various ens - toms ports. It is the plan of Secre- tary MiieVeagb to make an investiga- tion, throngh special agents, of the customs officials at all ports. What Democrats Plan. The democrats plan to make the tight to control the next bowie on these three issues: The high cost of living. Genuine downward revision of the tariff. Economy in public expenditures. Of emir.* there will be various minor ind loeal matters exploited by the dem- ocrats, but it is on these things that they intend to lay chief emphasis.