The Wickes Pioneer (Wickes, Mont.) 1895-1896, August 17, 1895, Image 3

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AllPss+mlsimammon• • e •• 1•1/1 .4 .04 r reel 5. You FARM AND GARDEN. MATTERS OF INTEREST TO • AGRICULTURISTS. Some Vp-t.-Date Hints About Cultiva- tion of the boil and Yields Thereof -- Horticulture. Viticulture and Flori- culture. Canada's ExpvrIntent /arms. OR SEVERAL years the provinces and the federal gov- ernment have been taking active inter- est in the improve- ment of agricul- tural methods throughout the provinces, and at present the equip- ments of their so- called \experimen- tal farms\ are very complete and. efficient_ The central experimental farm, situated near Ottawa, comprises some 500 acres of land and a complete outfit of buildings and the necessary machinery. The buildings are es- pecially fitted up for cattle, horses, pigs and poultry, and all of these are well stocked. There is a dairy equipped with the modern appliances for carry- ing on experimental work. The farm The Cranberry. The Cranberry is supposed to have been so named trout the appearance of its bud. Just before expending into the perfect flower, the stem, calyx and petals resemble the bead, neck and bill of a crane—hence the name, ''crane - berry,\ or \cranberry.\ The cranberry belongs to the Order Ericaceale, or heath family, and to the genus vacci- nettle Bilberries and Whortleberries also belong to the same genus. - There. are two hpecies of cranberries groeing within our territory—the small crate , berry, vaccinium oxycoccus, and the large, or American, cranberry, vaecin- turn macrociumon. The runners of the V. oxycoccus are very slender, being from four to nine Inches long. The small cranberry is found in the peat bogs of New Eng- land and Pennsylvania, and westward to Wisconsin and northward. It is also found in South America and on the steppes of Russia, and in the waste places in Siberia. This variety flow- ers in June, the berries are small and often speckled with white when young. The V. macrocarpon sends out run - ners varying in length from one foot to six feet. They trail upon the ground and send down numerous little roots to draw up moisture and nourish- ment for the flowering branches, which ascend from the runners at frequent Intervals, to the height of from three to includes a seed tenting and propagat- ing house anti a conservatory. Be - sides this central station, there are eleven experimental farms in other parts of Canada, and these carry on ex, periments in agriculture, horticulture anti arborlrultere with much .profit. The several farms are situated so as to render them as helpful as possible to the most thickly populated districts and in their equipments and general methods they resemble closely the cen- tral station. The staff of workers at die central experimental farm incliiiies a director, an agrieulturist. a botanist, an entomologist and a chemist. There are also a poultry manager, a \fore- man of forestry\ and several assist - ants to assist the niembers of the staff. The work is varied in nature and has to do with practically everything which relates to farming in Canada. The adaptability and merits of various varieties of wheat are, for example, the subject of careful Inquiry Experiments are carried On to deter- mine the vitality and verity of various( agricultural seeds, and to inveatigate the nature of thP 111APAPOS of Mares and trees. and the cure for the ravages of inseets Various varieties of fertiliz- ers are tested to determine their com- parative value with different mils and crops. The study of the care of ani- mals Is II very Important interest, and the value of different breeds of stock and their adaptability to various cli- mates and other conditions are care- fully investigated These stations ex amine the scientific and economic sides of butter and cheese making. Ex - periments are carried on to determine the heat methods of planting and prun- ing trees for fruit raising or for shel- ter or trrnher The Information gained In all this work Is carefully reeorded anti published for general dIstriblitlon Scientific American — - More hogs have been pacteil this year than last for corresponding periods Thus for a week during the latter part if M a y 315.nOn were melted. against 760.000 for the same week of last year 'il ow do you want your hair tut - reetomer—Oh. in the rod , fash- I..ned way. With R pRIr of shears \ITAVP you no atIthorlty In your ram ily\ \No: she left last week without giving maticee• cammainst twelve inches. This variety also flow- ers in Juice, bearing berries from one- fourth to one Inch in diame .; these berries are of a liglIt green color when growing, but when fully ripe, are of a bright crimson, or carmine color. It Is a native of North America and Is found growing naturally In the peat bogs of Virginia and westward to Min- nesota. It grows also in the 'Weigh possessions to the north of that state. It favorite resorts are swamps and morasses containing rich bottoms of decomposed vegetable matter. muck or pea' Such PWRITIM: onlv as become fairly dry in summer will grow these vines as the development of the vinee and berries requires a certain amount of dryness. On this point an authority says \This is not apparent at first sight, as the vines appear to be grow- ing In the water, bet upon closely ex- amining plants growing in a wet swamp, the roots will be found not penetrating the murk, as was at firrt Supposed, butt entwining themselves among the sphagnum moss above It. The water Settling away at certain sea- sons of the year, !elites the Moss com- paratively dry, although it possesses the property of retaining sufficient moistere to u elippoi t the plants, even In the dryest times\ In fail, the cran- berry seems to grow largely upon air and water, and for this reason will grow iipon land where nothing else will Some writers divide the American cranberry Into three Erwin); The bell cranberry fflg. 11, resembling a hell, the bugle cranberry Ole 21, resembling a bugle, and the cherry cranberry (fig at, resembling a cherry These va riPtiPti can be diatingulahed only by the fruit, the vines showing no differences. There are numerous varieties of rran , berries' partaking of POMP Of the rip pearances of these three anti evidently noRrging rom one variety Into an- other. The largest eranberriee are said to he of the bell variety and attain sometimes a diameter of one Inch. Varieties that are crimson when ripe are preferable, as they bring the beet prices on the market, the light colored berries being suspected of being un- ripe. There are, however, berries that are of light cream color when fully ripe. Some of the red varieties ripen very unevenly anti the half ripe ber- ries hurt the sale of all. It is, there- fore, necessary in Selecting vines, to 4et those that ripen their fruit all the same ti rut\ In Selecting vines to be transplanted, those bearing large berries are pre- ferred, as elicit are at a premium on the market. This is an important point and has much to do with selling the berries on city markets, where the best looking vegetables and berries are al- ways selected. The buyers judge by looks and are often deceived, for most varieties of fruit that are fine in flavor are of medium size. There are said to be two kinds of cranberry vines, one kind productive and the other not. The productive vines present the appearance of greenish brown on the leaf, the spears and run- ners are fine and thin, and remarkable for their wiry nature and aspect. `Whey seem of stunted growth, but form beau- tiful and tufted groups of spears in their process of matting. The non- productive vines appear brighter and stronger, and for thesetasons are apt to deceive the buyer. uch vines are either diseased or are grown on soil too rich for them and are running to tops. • • • Demand for the Cranberry.—The cultivation of' the cranberry is limited to.this century. Even 70 _Airs ago the men that started out to culti- vate it were regarded as dreamers. The demand for the berries in that day was small, the price sometimes gelag as low as 60 cents per bushel. But in spite of this a few of the first cultivators suc- ceeded and the \breeding up\ of better varieties began. Though . the supply was constantly increased the demand has more than kept pace with it, till to -day the price is almost uniformly good, frequently being several dollars per bushel. Within recent years $10 per bushel has been paid. • • • Soil for Cranberries.—In this quese tion owner of a swamp !girder- ested. A suitetble soil is absolutely necessary. The plant Is said to be peculiar in Its taste, on some apparently good soils refusing to thrive, and e en others being easily made a success. ut skill and care are always advisable. A man that intends to go into the busi- ness should visit a locality where cran- berry growing is ae success, where he will be able to form a correct idea of the soil required. What is known as the alluvial formation is the only one In which the cranberry succeeds well. Sand or quartz rock, pulverized or granulated, is alluvium, separated from the drift by the waves of the ocean and elevated by the action of the moving waters. The rich lowlands near the outlets of rivers are of this formation, as is also the mud found in the narrow bogs and creeks along the seashore, and the muck or peat underlying swamps. All alluvial formations are by the de- posits from the waters. There are sev- eral kinds of muck, but all have a fer- tilizing effect on the cranberry vine. Cranberries cannot be successfully cul- tivated in the \drift\ formation: that is, on land formed by the action of the great ice glaciers. Clay and loam are to be avoided, as they will not give a good foundation for a cranberry bed. ` In subsequent articles we will have more to say on the subject. Meet etIPPIY of Fn....e. A report upon food preparation and distribution in France has been sent to the State pepartment by Comm! Chancellor of ejavre.,,...hi this report he says that the recent alleged scarcity of meat in the United States, together with a very general suspicion of Amer- ican food supplies, have co-operated to bring before the minds of the people of France the necessity of looking to home production for supplies, and much has already, been done to consolidate and increase this disposition by inter- dicting the importations of American cattle, and by attempting to supply an- other deficiency by' substituting horse- flesh, or by such means as political economists have endeavored to dem- onstrate as practical tinder the follow- ing propositions: I. That an abun- dant supply of home-grown meat and foods can he obtained at low prices. 2. That they are capable of being pre- pared for consumption so as to yield much better results than have been hitherto obtained. a. That they can he effectively cooked in a much more economical manner than heretofore. 4. That they may be distributed so as to be promptly delivered in any and every direction to satisfy the wide and varied requirements of every clams of consumers It is said that the statis - tics silos that all the food required by the people of France can be produeed In that country, and thus put into the pockets of the French peasants many millions of francs httherto sent abroad, while the price of meat at the same tIme can be so reduced as to bring it wit hielt the rem h of the poorer classes In increased quantities. The consul says that this iToideleea involves the use of horseflesh and certain refuse matter of the slaughter houses. such AR hOtit , R and offal, which have before been thrown away. ieesetribles from Vim ida Alivicee ere received to the offeet that the com- ing ,,egetahle crop of Elorida will he at least twice as large as last Veal's and the melons ten times as large The main canto. of this is the necessity of farmers turning their attention to other crops, when the frepte of last Deceniber and January practically destroNed the orange crop and shill off the receipts from this usual profitable production The effect of this large Increase In the ootput In melons and vegetables will be to cheapen these articles in the xarlons markets of the north, tint at the PAM!' time it will open a profitable channel to the Florida farmer and enable him to reenperate from the losses of the severe winter. If the recent disaster to the orange crop leads them to greater diversity in farming and shows them how to take advantage of their op- portunities. the freeze will he worth to them more than It cost.—Es IRRI“ATION M ATTER. Peril e t relate on Irrigation. t now sl 1 the best results be die- t tainede A concise reply would be. by apelying the water iptelligently. A statement from good Authority at our farmer, institute warned us against the II , e of water when it was too cold. or colder than the soil. especiallY on citrus trees. A point iike this once gained should not be forgotten. The grain, the grass the vegetables, trees. may each call for its application in separate weye. • Different bode all for different application. different quanti- ties. at an application, and different ; spaces of time between applicatione. If your soil , is l&se, you may use a 1 larger lolantity at a time and less length of time. If your soil is com- pact. or your land falls off rapidly, you will get far better results by using just water enough to keep the entire length . of furrows absorbing water, and con- tinue the stream twenty-four or forts- eigh\ home,. If you are irrigating vege- tables, less time well suffice than if you are 'to force the water down to ' tree roots. At the same time you niust allow for exhaustion by evapor- ation sooner, even under good culti- vation, than when forced deeply into ' the soil. liy actual -best I have proved ' that trees made far better growth. even in loose soil, where water was run twenty-four hours slowly, after tne soil is rirst wet, than where it was abundantly applied for a few hours. In sinking a hole where water had run for twenty four hours a week previous, I found tile soil quite wet ty a depth of four feet. I know not how much farther down it wisp moist. I think it was PreeleCook who stated that plants feed only on soluble soil. showing the necessity of abundant moisture at the feeding section of the roots. I believe that cultivation is a twin sister to irrigation. Neither can do all the work properly, but unitedly it may be accomplished. Whet) to culti- vate. how deep and how often, are questions well worth considering. I would guard against too touch sur- face ierigation on clay or heavy soli where alfalfa or anything equally ten- der is seeded, that cannot be properly cultivated; - Just how much they will stand, or need, requires exercise of judgment. A heavy rain prevents grain from springing up: a flooded stir - face would naturarly act worse on smaller seeds. I believe that there are specific times to irrigate individual plants and fruits to greatly increase their pro- duction. I am informed that a heavy rainfall in November or Itecemoer wili insure a heavy yield of grapes in the north and middle of this state where they do not irrigate. Also, that an abundanee'of water applied in Octo- ber or November will almost insure a heavy budding for fruit of tne prune. thereby laying a foundation for a, coin*: crop. The practical fruit grower can, go farther and state when and how much water to use to mature different fruits to advantage. The growing of alfala seems airnMe, yet no two fields produce time same amount. The soit differs. but no more than the minds of 'the owners. It is no trick to grow from two to threee e tone per acre on light soil by' usinr sufficient water after cutting. !leerier soil will make a good yield on less water than light, but it is safe after your field is well rooted to use all the water you can get. and your profits; will be great- ly increased thereby. Arizona. with but a scant rainfall is dependent on irrigation. Her broad rivers tire turned from their ceurties to water her fertile soil. Her system of distributing the water is crude -- with level land and abundance of water it is tiooded from ditches. What, results from it\ she has not °nig( heavy fields of alfalfa, 'out of barley and wheat for nay, anti today she is selling bright barley hay for $10 per ton. Deducting freight and baling, 1111101peetincer will not receive half of thie p?tee. and yet they are satisfied. swilling to compete with the dry ranching of cur state. their yield being so much heavier per acre. Those who have made a practical test of irrigation fer growing hay crops in our vicinity are satiefied with the results. Another link closely con- nected with tree and shrub irrigation where eultivation is inconvenient or toe laborious, is mulching with ma- terial that is well rotted, if possible. Be test I am convinced that a limited am iiiii it of water will doriontile service under mulching. besidee saving much labor with hoe or spade. --'thy Fel. Fogg in paper read before the Perrin, (Cal.,' Horticultural Club. - About Over -Irrigation. e it-,..are and not water is the de- mand -1 all vegetation. Where an almodaliee of water is not to lie hail th ere is n e eanger from :trace/iteration. Many times a good crop is lost bv irrb gat ing at the wrong time and applying water at too frequent intervals, corn will soon show the effects of excessive irrigation by turning yellow. Inepec- tion of the roots of it eorn stalk irri - gated too noreh will show all elustesed together. as if try mg' to escape from th e drewning ef (IVO' r friPInd V fftrInern. Fruit trees will either idled their leave , or the foliage will turn yellow because of too much water. Alkaline lands will Show esceat. of moisture by the poieen rising to the surface. In every jrrigated locality the effects of over irrigation are clearly visible in orchards fields amid eardens. 'The soil that h is WO !illicit writer poured open it beeomert Metess mei of no valor for growing crops. If a ditch or lateral carries a volume of water for two hourri the Roil is e pietely saturated and the excesav begins to pereolate through the harl-pan or surface soil, where it forma it 'Meet of mint up mud. This under lake cif lifelese water will main rob time soil of its loamy ;an ributes and destroy the fertility toy reusing it to form in clods or mud -atones. A few veers of irrigation will 1 , onvert a go.uf farming land into worth less meadovva and make a swamp of what tos t rht to he Wlsi I draIlied Nettle. The liktolyof irricatron has de lllll n etreted thee\ , facts, which etand Ma as warnings to the farmet s cf the preeen t. eg adIst believing in the footsteps of their former friends. Ton moeh water on the surfeee cansea n rank growth of crab grass, sand bers sr.d other water plants. Double the cultivation is nee easary where over -irrigation is Brae- tit;ed. The eel ti rated plaete are crowded outha wild grasses spring- ier up where too inucn moisture abounds. Useleite cultivation disturbs tile roots of growing crepe too fre- quently and the result is that the pro- duction ii. deereased.—Joel Shomaker Alfalfa For the SandhIlla Lincoln county has so far taken a leading position on a number of gees - tions that will grptly .enhance the welfare of the state. The question of how shall we utilize the sandy lands of the county is one that belongs to the state as well as to our own locality. , Success- ful alfalfa cultivation on these latide is now answering this question. eir. Kunkel who reeities on section 14, town ti range :II. about fifteen miles southwest from the etteeliats now a splendid stand of this plant growing OD hislauri, and also on a tract ad- joinitig.the property, of a Lite_oln land owner. Mart lioleombe, of Brady W- and. tassels° a successful stand on the sanity land under his canal. NV. elathewsen has also made a sticesss of his eeeeting or this forage plant. Mr. :t,turge , , north of the town, has also a splendid field sowp this spi Over northwest at the ranch of Has- kell •A: Williams out the head of the Dismal river, there hae been experi- ments made to learn the beat method of planting this clover: On theit sandy lands the principal difficulty to overcome has been the drifting and blowing of the send. The greatest success has been secured by sowing time seed on the grass and then break- ing or turning 'the hod upon it. In this way the drifting, and cutting effects of the sand have oeen reduced to the minimum. - Mr. Mathewson of Brady Island states that owing to the fractious na- ture of one of his horses teat he worked on the press drill when he sowed hie field, that he was unable tc lift the shovels when he came to turn aiouud at the end of the land, but he finds alfalfa growing among time wild grass where tins occurred. By the adoption of either of these two methods it. may be possible to successfully grow alfalfa on oir sandy lands—if we will not be too modest we might call them sand hills. If this piant can be successfully grown in these localities it certainly means that we have discovered a way by which some millions of acres of Ne- braska land can be made profitable and useful: We cannot do too much towards pushing this question. as it will add greatly to the wealth of Ne- braska. as well as our own county. Mr. Brett has been successfully grow ing this plant for over eight years oz) the tiokay Island. northeast of hit home ranch. The ialanil where it is grown has the advantage of being sub -irrigated, tine there seems no diffi- culty in eecuring a growth on the sandy portion of the field., Mr. Brett has now growing about two hundred retiree on this island. Next year every body should put mit a field of alfalfa. —North I'latte Tribune. A SENSIBLE ELEPHANT. It Soon Detevtad That the Cutup TrutieR Was Not Level. In India domesticated elephants are usually' given drink from large wooden troughs filled with well' water by means of a pump, and it is commonly an elephant that tills this trough. Every morning he goes regularly to his task. While visiting a friend at his tine residence in India a correspondent of a paper saw a large elephant engaged in pumping such a trough fell of water. Ile con- tintiee: -In passing I noticed that ono of the two tree -trunks which supported the trough at either end had rolled from its place, so that the trough, still elevated at one extremity, would begin to empty itself as soon as the water reached the level of the top at the other end, which lay on the ground. I stopped to see If the ele- phant would discover anything wrong. Soon the water began to run off at the end which had lost its sup- port. The animal showed signs of perplexity when he saw this, but as the end nearest him lacked much of being full. he continued to pump. Finally, seeing that the water con- tinued to pass off. he left the pump handle and began to consider the phenomenon. Ile seemed to find it deliettit ketseettefn. Three times he returned to his pumping anti three times he examined the 'trough. el was an absorbed looker-on. im- patient to see what would he done. Soon the lively 'lapping of the ears Indicated the dawning of light He went and smelled of the tree-trink, whieh had rolled from ender the trough. I thought for a moment that he was going to put it in its Waite again. Rut it was not. as I soon understood. the end whieh ran over that disturbed is mind, but the end which he fount itnpoesible to file Raising the trough, which he then allowed to rest for an instant on one el his huge feet, he rolied away the second supportine log with his trenk. and then set the trough down, so that it rested at both etids on the ground. lie then returned to the pump rine eompleted his task %h.,. Was D•sg•iiiirprl There WA. a W , MIRT1 of dignified) Iseii ing and apparent intelligen.... standing at the post - box the other day. Ras a the World. She dropped in several letters and ga7rd hesitat- ing at is small package which she hold, glanced about for tame , in her problem. and her my 'cu lit upon a polieernan ''I beg your pardon.\ she said, sweetly. holding •the package for him inspection, •• but do you think that then , are enough stamp.' on this to carry 10\ And fetch is the chivalrous attitude of man toward perplevcd Woman that the polieeman said, promptly it Minot making even an attempt to weigh the peekage in his hand. , •etilm shurn there's enough. Ma'am *. Her doubts banished by this statement, the lady droppod her bundle and went on her way rejoicing. TENNESSEE CAVES. FREAKS OF NATURE COMPARA- TIVELY UNKNOWN. Si Irrfill 1 / 4 tibt..irAiicAn Arrhite,ture in 1....ty A ll'ai•Pro That ilaol Daily ( Ur at orea—Tike Inlowifts (Lase. 0 THOSE WHO are interested in' natural curiosities Tennessee presents a very extensive field. In all quarters of the state are to be found caverns, grottoes, lakes, and other objects of In- terest, and to de- scribe them at any length would require a prodigious amount of work. Last year Prof. Mer- cer of the University of Pennsylvania visited Chattanooga and spent some time in excavating la Lookout, Nicka- jack, and other eaves, in hope of find- ing the remains d i t extinct animals, or at least traces of some prehistoric race. No list of the natural curiosities of Tennessee has ever been compiled, and even the histories and descriptive sketches of the various counties do not mention them all. That they have been objects of interest since their existence became knovvn is made manifest by the fact that In 1842 a book entitled \Life As It Is,\ was written by J. W. M. Breazeale. Breazeale makes no mention of Look- mit Cave, and falls to mention.also Car - roll's Cave, one of the most interesting in Coffee county, not far from Tulle- ehoma. In Smith and Wilson counties there are numerous extensive caves, but no mention of them is made in the book. Near Greenville, in Greene county, is a very beautiful cave, which is fully as Interesting as, If not more so, than the Maminoth Cave of Kentucky. The en- trance is in the side of a ridge, about midway between the summit and the base, and merely a hole about five feet square. From the entrance is a long, narrow slope, leading into a subter- ranean chamber, with grolned roof and well turned arches and numbers of stalactites and stalagmites. Narrow passageways connect this chamber with a number of others, in one of which Is \Pompey's Pillar,\ a column about twenty feet high and two feet in diame- ter, which glitters like a cluster of gems In the torchlight. In another chamber Is a swift flowing stream, and in an- other a deep hole, from which a cur- rent of air passes rapidly. . In Jefferson county, near Mossy Creek, is one of the most peculiar cav- erns In the country, the entrance being on a level plateau, and the cave itself almost horizontal with the surface of the couotry7 -. The entrance is like the crater of a volcano, and when the bot- tom of the abaft is reached a passage- way extends a great length in an easter- ly erection. It has never been ex- plored very far because of a deep stream of water of about twenty-five feet in width, which has hitherto barred fur- ther progress. Away in the (Meanie) Is heard the roaring of a much larger stream, which is thought to be a verita- ble underground river of no small di- mensions. The general surface of the country fs level, sparsely timbered, and with very few springs for several miles around. However, two miler - from the cave is an enormous hole about 250 feet long and 100 feet wide, at the bottom of which Is a deep lake of dear and ex- ceedingly cold water. The curiosity part of the fact is that the hole is 100 feet deep from the sur - face of the ground to the surface of the water, and the lake has apparently no bottom and neither inlet norl outlet. A few miles from this lake is the site of Swingleet lead mine, where the first settlers procured lead for bullets. In. Jefferson county also is English's Mountain, In which there is a - blowing cave.\ This cave has never been ex- plored, because a strong current of air rushes from It every four minutes with, suffielent force to extinguish any lanip or torch. Electricity has not reached that locality yet. Tn Carter county are caves, but without any welting feat eree. One of them Is known as \Dead Man's Cave,\ becasoe• three hunters lost their way In it and were found dead by their friends, hav ing been overpowered by eases. NAVIGATING DRY LAND. A gtteer Craft Employed In To•sina rot Up -Country. In the From h river country, Wincon silt. for toeing logs on the lakes and dead water 1mm the rivers, they Ilse a ate:int/mat 'ailed an \alligator 30 feet 17)ng, lo feet beam, and 3 11 . 2 feet sided, built strong anti with three standing keels 11 or I() inches below the bottom These an' steel Mind. The equip ments are paddle wheels on the 51, 1 .. and a drum with one half mile of steel wire cable. The boat Is mutt a.head and ariehoreil to shore or in wide water to the bottom. The cable Is attached to the raft and wound up with the drum W' hen they romp to rapids that ean not be run the cable is run up on portage and the steamboat glues overland on the keels mentioned. the boiler being kept level with a screw, end they quickly move over A place A wagon could not run. Rotation , Malta \Charlie Van Bream has wheels in his heath\ exclaimed Amy to her friend, the high school girl. - Don't you know that expression IP horrid slangs\ asked Mildred. \Is its\ replied Amy. Innocently. ''It is\ \What slimed I say to express the same hies7\ \Say tpat his creolum is amply Sup- plied with rotating disks.\ •

The Wickes Pioneer (Wickes, Mont.), 17 Aug. 1895, located at <>, image provided by MONTANA NEWSPAPERS, Montana Historical Society, Helena, Montana.