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j n, • I t VOL. I. WICKES PIONEER. \Free Coinage of Gold and Silver at the Ratio of 16 to 1.\ WICK ES, MONTANA, SATURDAY, OCTOBER 26, 1895. = NO. lf THE Wickes Hotel Wickes, Montana. We have recently secured control of this house and have fitted it up with new fur- niture from top to bottom. CLEAN ROOMS, NEW BEDDING, Table Surpassed By None. The only place between Helena and Butte where a fitst class meal can be had for 50c. RATES: $1.50 Per Day. Special terms made to those desiring reg- ular board. THE Wicke Hotel. Wickes. Montana. FOR SILVER MONEY. THE AMERICAN PROTECTIVE IRRIGATION MATTER. anee for irrigating gardens and The Sheridan eater TARIFF LEAGUE REQUESTS THAT home grounds. EVERY HONEST ADVOCATE OF ALL REPUBLIeAN NEWSPAPERS SHALL DECLINE TO USE THE FREIC GOLD IS A POOR THINKER. SUPPLEMENT SERVICE BEING SENT OUT BY THE REFORM CLUB, AN ANGLO-AMERICAN ORGANI- ZATION OF NEW YORK. THIS IS THE SAME CLUB THAT MANAGED CLEVELAND'S CAM- PAIGN IN 1892. KNOWING THAT THE FREE TRADE CRY WILL BE OUT OF THE QUESTION NEXT YEAR, THEY HAVE HIT ON THE \SOUND MONEY\ IDEA WITH A VIEW OF DEMOCRATIC SUCCESS. IT IS AN ENGLISH SCHEME ALL THROUGH AND WILL IsOSE VOTES TO THE GOLD CAUSE. THE AMERI- CAN PEOPLE ARE ALERT AND WILL NOT TOLERATE FOREIGN INTERFERENCE IN OUR ELECTION. THE AMERICAN PROTECTIVE TAR- IFF LEAGUE, WHICH HAS ADVISED A BOYCOTT ON THE REFORM CLUB MATTER, IS THE BULWARK OF THE REPUBLICAN PARTY, HAV- ING CHARGE OF THE PUBLICATION OF ALL THE PARTY'S CAMPAIGN LITERATURE. IT IS COMPOSED ENTIRELY OF INFLUENTIAL AMERICANS. NOTHING ENGLISH ABOUT IT. THE LEAGUE HAS VIEWS ON THE MONEY QUESTION WHICH MAY FIND EXPRESSION IN PLAT- FORM. YEA'S NATIONAL PLAT - Sample of the Ignorance That Is on the Hide for Which Roswell. 1.1 llorr Went Mown Into Obscurity. and Shame A C. Stuart Patterson, chairman execu- tive committee Sound Money League of Pennsylvania, recpntly had pub- lished his idea of what constituted \sound money.\ When first published, the Item thought his idea too nonsensical for no- tice. But as a demand upon the Item has since been made for its analysis, the nonsensical features will be made clear: \Sound money,\ says Mr. Patterson, \is of only one of two possible kinds; first, that whose market value as a commodity Is equivalent to its face value as money; or, second, that which Is representative in character, and hav- ing little or no market \fable as a com- modity, is convertible at par into money of the first kind. * • • Gold alone is sound money of the,first kind.\ Let all the governments of the world to -day open their mints to the free coinage of silver and silver at once be- comes as sound as gold, according to Mr. Patterson, although he does not say it. He does not say it, because his definition shows ignorance of what it.is that makes the money of the country; he is ignorartt that fiat of a government alone makes money. Ile is ignorant that fiat alone gives the present com- mercial value of gold; he is ignorant that there is no such thing as having a commodity value equivalent to its face value 'untie from Its fiat value; be- cause the commodity vales Is alone made up by the coinage or flat demands of the world. All of Mr. Patterson's definition is based upon the long -ago exploded doc- trine of Intrinsic value In money Inde- pendent of its minting or flat value. No one but a glaring ignoramus ever now claims an intrinsic value aside from the flat value put upon coin by the various governments. When one comes forward again with this old non- sense of intrinsic value, as,Mr. Patter- son does, be is not /cK9:1 1 ht ding; he knows too little of the subject or print. Any school boy now knows and can ex- plain to Mr. Patterson that If all the gold in the wold to -day were demon- etized, its flat value removed, the com- mercial value of gold instead of being the present face value of gold, might drop to twenty cents on the dollar of its present face value; It would drop to exactly what it would be worth for mercantile or manufacturing purposes; that might be even ten cents on the dollar or its present value; because nearly four thousand million dollars worth of It would be suddenly thrown upon the market. Naturally, so large a sum would glut and swamp all de- mands for gold for mercantile purposes. That is all the intrinsic value or \sound money value\ there is In Mr. Patterson's gold dollar. Regarding the second kind of \sound money,\ there is no soundness in it. There Is not enough gold in the coun- try to redeem five per cent of the de- mand obligations which this second form of money daily promises to re- deem. Hence. Instead of being \Bonet\ it is rotten with fraud and eorreetion, a lie on its face, and the foundation of panics To make the money of the \second\ slams sound, according to Mr. Patter- son, no more of it could remain in cir- siltation than could he redeemed at any one moment of time in gold, which would mean In practice that there meet only be a quantity of \Round money\ in a country equivalent to the amount of gold in it In the United States this might he two or three hun- dred million dollare, which might all go abroad to -morrow if Europe sold that much worth of American securi- ties held there. Now without any money left In this country, all gold tie- ing exported, where woitid the \sound money\ to carry on Internal United States trade come In? The truth is, Mr. Patterson does not know enough about \Round money\ to last him over night; much leas to be chairman of a \Sound Money League.\ Yet this very ignorance which would disgrace a primary school Is consid- ered so \sound\ that Mr. Patterson'a \cont definition is tieing incor- porated in a pamphlet: Document No. 7, \one of the Money League's valu- able (7) and instructive (?) publica- tions,\ Says the Public Ledger. What in the world axe these usurer apologists coming, to? Have they no common sense left!—Philadelphla Item The Cry for Mere litontiri. It looks very much as if Wall street were conspiring to compel the govern- ment to issue another batch of bonds. It Is not likely that the same syndicate that took the last batch will take the next. There had been an issue of bonds prior to the one taken by Morgan and his associates. The Cleveland policy Is to let these \soft snaps\ go around. Every bond issue puts a big pot of money in the coffere of the negotiators of it. That much la in the nature of things. These negotiators, from Jay Cook to J. Pierpont Morgan, are bro- kers, entitled to a commission. Now that the balance of trade is against this country, Wall street has hit upon a very simple plan for draining the treasury of gold. It does not take a very heavy drain to get up a scare. By what may be called the coronfon AN.; of finance it has come to be regarded 53 necessary to the parity of the two coins, gold and silver, that there should be $100,000,000 of gold in the treasury. It is only necessary to draw out enough to reduce the gold reserve below that arbitrary figure to create a cry for more bonds. Two Issues were put out bY President Cleveland during the first half of his administration, and there is no telling how many more will follow. Cleveland seems to be at the mercy of the sharks that swim around the ship of state,and the ship itself is rudderless. The administration seems to have mis- taken these sharks for the moneyed in- terest of the country. This is much like mistaking the bears and hulls in the Chicago grain pit for the farmers of the wheat and sorn belts of the pr .: Metes. lailliiitic111.4 tp It pays in dollare and cents to be kind to all domestic animals. An ugly temper is an expensive thing on a farm; this is especially true in the handling of horses. One of our most sueeessful breeders of driving horses, who has built up a profitable trade in family drivers, life orders exceeding his supply, says his tiOrress has been very largely due to the fact that he never allows a blow or a cross word in the stable, yard or pasture. Had drivers make bad horses. A horse cannot he screamed at and , ersed without becoming less valuable in vvory particular. To reach the highest de grim of value, the anisnal should be perfectly gentle and reliable, but if It expects every moment that It Is In liar- nese to be scolded fuel struck, It will be In a constant state of nervousness, and in its excitement Is liable. through fear. to do something which Is not exeected. It is prettied. , to train a horse to be governed by speaking to Mtn, almost as rnMpletely as to train a child, and when thus trained, thy horse reaches its highest Value. When a horse Is soothed by the gentle words of his driver, and we have seen him calmed down from great excitement by no other means, it may be fairly concluded that the man who has such power over him is hu- mane' man and a sensible one. A gentle horse is worth more than it would be if not gentle. What i s termed viciousness in horses Is fre- quently nothing but sheer timidity, and almost Invariably is the result of rough treatment. Horse,' would not give way to fear when a man ap- proaches them If they had always been aecustomed to receive kind and humane treatment. Young colts should be taught not to fear the approach of a human being. They are fond of being petted, and with constant kindness will become quite docile. A nubbin of corn, a handful of grain, or little maga? of tercel( them occasionally will gain their confidence, and they will gradually lose all fear. The spirit of trustfulness thus Inspired and the resulting gentlen e ss of disposition will last through life, un- less, adverse influences are allowed to Interfere, fader Ditch ht Wyoming. To the dweller in a land of - sufficient rainfall\ there are few seteeete more interesting than a sted3, even of the observations were contieed to Sheri- dan anti Johnson counties. The for- mer is loeated on the northern line of the state and abont centrally east and west, Big Horn 4:minty separating it from Yellowstone Park in the north- weet corner of the state, and Crook county lying between it and the west- ern boundary of Dal:ota. Johnson county adjoins eheridan county on the south, and the Big Horn mountains, a spur of the Rockies, fringes the west- ern nounriary of both these counties, supplying the eternal snows ienieh are the bottree of the waters which ir- rigate and render them fruitful. Both am counties referred to are embraced in what is known as Water Division No. 2 in the state irrigation eystem, a a l nd i ke the methods pursued in both aim Of the trip • thither we shall say notieug further thau to remark that it was very comfortable. made by the Burlington and Missouri River route, without change of cars from Omaha, leaving that city a little after four tit:loci: in the afteinoim and arrivir at Sheridan, the county seat of Sheri- dan county. after an uneventful but very interesting run of about twenty- five hours, the interest lying largely in observing the grasinal change from eastern to •.seetern Nebraska eon- ditions. from these latter to those of the Black Bilis, which the Burlington line skirts on the. south, and from these again to those of northeastern Wyoming, wita the final landing , in the midst of the rich agricultural lux- uriance of the irrigated districts us hick were our destination. We leas. re- mark in passing that railway service furnishee by the Iturlineton route, which is the only means of access to this section, leaves absolutely nothing to be desired. The passenger train Consists of eleepet s and s hair ears. ves- tibuled throughout. good time is •naile, the comforts are equal to those of the best lines in the older states, and the man who can not enjoy the trip must indeed be a victim of ehroue discon tent. Not the least interesting features of the journey are the numerous live- stock trains that seem to stand ox every twice:acts waiting for the pas- senger train to pass before resuming their way to eastern markets. They are tilled with range cattle, which the) year are of very high quality. com- peting with pretty good natives and bringing good prices. Sheridan is 300 miles north of teney cone. about the same dietanee eolith - east from Helena, and Tilt milee north- west of Omaiia. It ie 1,750 feet above the sea level, and is a thriving town of ab s,000 inhabitants. Situated at the confluence of the illg Red Little tioose creeks, it in estimated that with- in a radius of t wenty-tive miles there are folly half a million semen of good irrigable land with ample supplies of water to irrigate the area, which, if all put into wheat, would produce at a low estimate, twenty inillions of bushels annually A little more than half of the land, that is irrigable is already under ditch, and when we first heard the descriptions given of its productive- ness we were inclined to believe that the rar, tied air of IVyouting niside it difticult to tell the truth there; but subseeuent invextessation satisfied es that the sterice we heard did not err on the sole of over statement, for under the life-giving nie•reinaney of the mountain streame, the yields attained with many ereps. suited to the climate and eeasons, are really phenomenal. - Sheridan county is Itei initea tiny and thirty wide, having an area of 3,000 tepiare miles; it contnins lei es 000 acres. of which 640 000 are agrisid- tural and irrigable, e00,oist acres we grazing innate making a wonderful growth the • o r f e : r n a a t i t o l‘ I ' n rig h . : r s e o p .00 l ii i i n acres Sri' timber and inmost .Iohnson t een- ty its about one-third larger than Sher- idan and has a rather iarger propor- tion of agricultural Slid eraAing 1511(1. Both counties tire regnrdea as the cream of the state from an serricel tural standpoint. and undoubtedly have a great tutul re before them. The county seat of Johnson county is lea- flets, forty tiliie9 imut.11 of Sheridan. Both towns have °hese i- bele 'dame find very admonble water work; aye - terns. We la. keit time to examine the water works system of Sueriden. but were able to learn mulch in 'elation to that of Buffalo There the water slip - ply is taken from Clear Creek. which pluses through the town, the point. of supply being four mile; above The water le brought down in underground pipes, fourteen ,n,•Ipoi in diameter, and /las a head or fall of so) feet. so that b e a l mos t a. griAlt WI they please the pressure at peint of delivery may make et, redieees :Ilona. the line mod- erate the pressure. *nil water for the use of the eitizen . iv furnished a , the dumping it into tgengits from which it is carried to reseyvoire. Pinups of a supply is equally good, and the tewn do/en different patteree gauged toi- lets on foot a project. to establish an any kind of posse'. are in use over the electric power Went at Big t.00se irrigated portions or the glebe. Every Creek Falls, fourteen miles distitet. device within the Dower - of man to eon- ivilich will furnish 4,000 horse eower trite been broilglit tn 1,ear on the most casual and hasty kind, of the for the use of manufacturera. for question of lifting. e seer for irrigas problem of :rri4rition on the ground in which the town am, servo doling court- thin. those sections of the country where try are %s ell adapted both la tiemand • %Vitt it pay to lift alter to irrigate it is practiree, au,' pU , (11e attention, ordinary Lien proilucts' lea ierestien and in raw materials. Buffalo is as not only in the arid regions where ir- t without a railroad but a nrojeet is frequently melted. Yes. it ‘vill return rigation is a neeeesity, but further 3 o . l e i foot met the h111 - 1:epi art: already- large dividends on the investment. In made to run a branch from Clearnaimi, the west it enables the farmer to sub - east where normal rainfall is ordinate- on the Burlington road, up the Clear fine the arid deserts, while ie the east ily sufficient for the growingcof abun- Creek valley, a (listener of thirty -tire it insures against tile pote,Sielity of a dant crops. is at present very meek miles. It will of coi ree be part ef the drouth. deserts can be iseeptered notes of observations recently made in All that. has beeu thus far said is and homes established ripen delightful s!tea by the aid of watereifting devices. concentrated upon the subjeeL .1 few Burlington system, northern Wyoming, in relation to the preliminary to mentien of the eget- The atmosphere can be tempered - and methods pm s.led there and the results culture of the section of coo sis ntry re- droirth rireventini in the ritineelc re- gion.% by lifting the water anti eatab- which the ' ae \ In P lish • n ' ae not be r stI rr e t t ial d t e o' lein N e \ iTt. t . e i t t . n i t s t. ( r ) ts f l e ilt () s ur ht . s ' en th s e a e it s i - , liehing systent of irrigation:. 'Ube `vithu n t interest to the reeeler• Our the country is in Water Diviaiim No. :!, k ..ay of attilizing the Underground Which is aimminntly supplied tiy men- ,watera has just begin' and will not er u ous montain 't streams having sonic erminate until all the aVailubie kinds very tower Ilan bat having also have been brought under sueceseful great fall e hien makes :t !es -elide to cultivation by means of irrigat water areas that lie vers high. >loth- in Rural World. Mg can be more start ting to the un- accustoined observer thyn to sett tne ditches and time water appareutly run- ning rip hill around tie. brow of an et11.nenee a hundred or leo feet above hini as he passes along the roue, and if Ire trested his sense of sight instead of relying on the established laws of nature, tic WOalli declare that water d d not always seek lower levies. Powder river is one of the important streams in this division), but it hiss as yet no ditches of importance at all and nearly the whole of its a butiuu it supply remains to be appropriated. Ill (loose Creek at a recent measuremeut in the growing season. COO feet of water per second was found to tke run- ning to waste fee want of an appro- priator; the loss ie Clear Creel: wart equally hirge. Brie in Tongue River fully one thousand eubie feet per second were found to be wasted, not- withstanding the lure... siipnlies that were being- drawn &ten it, In these three creeks alone this waste is sue ficient to furnish the leeal - maximum, which is much in excess of actual re- quirements, for irrigating more than 1a0.000 additional acres. Many other streams show equally large proi ortione of utilised water, and there is scarcely a doubt that the etipply is practicalle inexhaustible With an eye to the more remote fettles. steps are now be- ing taken to establish a reservoir sys- tem whirl, !shall conserve the water which feces through these streams, in the seasons when little is used, for use during the g,rowirig season. 'Elie many deep. broad gulches. with nar- row and easily dammee eutlets, and the aimed:ince of material on the ground available for dams that shall Ise as enduring as the mountain- them- selves. render this an easy task, al- SOME MAMMOTH NURSES. though there seems at present to he little necess . ty for sueh provisions. gaeptiant• 'that Are Trusted to Tend the supply being already ample. There is one leature about If yoming irriga Lion that is worthy of notice. '1 hb people seem to be strongly opposed to monster irrigation einnparres organ ized for the purpose of carrying water and sepplying it for :in acreage rental. Nearly or quite all the ditches in the division of sy hit+ lye are sneaking are constructed and owned by the farmers and ranchn en who rely upon them for supplies and as an incident to their farming operations, and there are no ditch companies in eperatien Which carry water merely for rental. The people seem to fear the servitude that exits in many othe'r irrigation dis- tricts, and to be determined to escape it, by owning their own water supplies. In a ell esequent artede we shall have something to say of the results which irrivittion in the section spekeu of accomplishes, the crops grown the yield' made, the prices received locally, with other matters of interest fro it an agricultural standpoint Iowa stead. - Irrigation Notes. Wlif Hibbard. near North i.oup. says he get forty trushels of oats from te half bushel of sowing, as the result of good soil and irrigation. Farmers along the ditch of the North Louis Irrigation company begin tssirag water soon in order to have the laud in good Condition for spring plowing and seeding. • The eanal thirty-three miles long, on the Cedar is completed. At the an- nual meeting - . September II, 1893, If. K. Babcock was eleeted president of d the cotnpany: le. H. Camnbe!I. vice president; A. S. Rosson, treasurer. and Leonard Everett and Easy - aril Everett. director** We are informed that an irrigation. company has been formed at, Spring View, Neb. This company proposes to take the water 11'0111 Snake river, above Valeutine, through Iieya Paha county, a distance of Se miles Ponies in aid of the, enterprise will be asked, to be voted boon, that the work may be pushed tills fall in the hope of mak- ing the ditch useful next year. Keya. Paha county is wel! supplied with water in springs, creeks and river, and there ix no reason why that may not become one if the richest count'es of the state Messrs :\ Icseane nee I melon of (Inutile are engineering it gigantic irri- gation betienie on Greeu river. Wyo., ett•erine yo.000 aere-s. - Lifting Waier Per irrigation Many valuable acres of arid land re- main to be conquered by :neans of lift- ing water to the level of the area now worthless Water can be easily and cheaply lifted from pools, springs, streams and underground sources. The day has come in many sections of the west. and the east also. when the water must be raised to the atierote in order to Le utilized. Gravity canals are all right so long as they carry the water to the lend, omit canals cannot be made to reach mush ‘,1 the higher lands of the west. In the middle stetes water must come from. wells and be lifted to a sufficient height te be impounded in reservoirs from which it can be distributed over the land. Water can be lifted by different methods and it in only a eneation for the farmer to de,•ii;e ii hl( Ii is the beat and clienpeta for his use The wind- mill is a great power in Kansas ordinary io-feot mill pieced over an u0 - walled well tapping the sheet, water, a dictate e f fro 0 ten te fifty feet, will isupply etiongli water to irrigate ten acres In some instanees the SITIali mill lifts avater for twenty nere.. ae Cording teaerth of svell and fruit are Of the soil The mills are here in repair the year rolled and are certstatitly pumping from the earth the seeet water of .,he plains and impounding it in Small remervoire. An nlIewance of nearly otill third muat be made for evaporation and seepage, suu th ,t with More extensive voneretebined and tim 11er-revered reservoirs a larger propor- tion of water could be utiloed In addition to the old reliable wind- mill there are se.venl powers now be- ing nue essfully tined for lifting water gaeohne engine Ii a cheat , and ef- fective machine for pumping Horse power is o ,1 and is being litipplanted with new improvement^. but it is atid in nap sy here so t ineivIdnal iertga rate of twenty four dellara a sear. Hon plaws are in operation. Current which Includes an ayinle supply for wheels ,-an be Vend in many of the armaestle p e rowes us o-eil as tip brind weatc is at P11111% I I ft log the water soil 115 I'tes. The whole fatuil3 of the malmie be- come, as it were, parasitee to the ,•le- phant, by whom they earn their living. I have seen is hairy 10.11,eell by its mother systematieally under the ele- phant's cure, and within rettelt of its trunk, while the mother went to feteli water or to get wood or material to cook the family dinner. No jackal would be likely to pie': up and carry off a baby who was thus confided to tho care of an elephant: but most people who lived a life in the jungle know how very possible it is for a jackal or a wolf to carry off a.. hale v. hen lying' In a hut when the mother's lomat is turned. The children thee brought lip in tee companionehip of an elephant becoriat familiar with him. and take all kinda Of liberties with him, which the ele- phant seems to endure on the princi- ple that it doe, not hurt hine while it amuses the child. You see a little naked Mack childeibotit two feet high. standing on the elephant's bare back. and taking it down to this water to bathe, shouting all the time in tho most unbecoming terms of native abusive language. On arriving at the water the ele- phalli, ostensibly in obedience to the child's command, lies down and en- joys himself. just leaving a part of his body, like a small island. above water, on whieh the small child stands and yells, and yells all the more if he has several companions of tea own age, also in °hero itf their elephants. all wallowing ih this water around him. If the child allpe ofT his island the elephant's trunk promptly re places him in safety The littIo urehine, as they grin up, hecume first mates te malionta, furl eventuelly arrive at the dignity of being rnahoet.. the111.01VP9. Tato of a Rink. The first duke of Wellington. meet frig Mies Dawann Denser at a dinner was observed to look intently at a ring worn by that lady After dinner hit aecoated her, and reoueeted to he allowed to see It, as the children say, in his own hands “Where did yon got this ring\ said the duke. \It belonged to the late ldrs, FItzhose- Iwtrt \ -Yes.\ “Ito you know the trick of It' Have you opened it?\ \Opened I know of no triek.\ ex- claimed the lady. The duke touched a spring and showed behind the ring a tiny miniature of this regent in hie best day;. \There were two of these explained the duke. \They were exactly alike, so my attention was drawn to yours. The fellow ring ,liffered from It In that It inclosed the likeness of Mrs. Fitzherbert. The king gave that one to me before he died and ordered me to place It on hie breast before the coffin was closed down I did so \ If le, •