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I 4 A al, See WICKES PIONEER. \Free Coinage of Gold and Silver at the Ratio of 16 to 1.\ VOL. I. WICKES, MONTANA, SATURDAY. NOVEMBER .13, 1895. 50.1.6; THE Wickes Hotel, Wickes, Montana. We have recently secured control of this house and have fitted it up with new fur- niture from top to bottom. CLEAN ROOMS, NEW BEDDING, Table Surpassed By None4 The only place between Helena and Butte where a first class meal can be had for 50c. RATES: • $1.50 Per Day. Special terms made to those desiring reg- ular board. THE , Wickes Hotel: Wickes, Montana. CULTIVATE ALFALFA. THE PANACEA FOR FARM MORT- GAGES. It H•s Been Demonstrated that if Alfalfa Remains the mortgage Must 00 - There a an incompatibility of Temper - How Riain Meaner Got Rich in the Stock Business. Alfalfa vs. the Mortgage. A correspondent of the Lincoln Journal writing front Danbury. Ne- braska, says: This is the place where alfalfa first started in Nebraska twelve years ago. It is worth. coming all the way from the Missouri river to see this one green spot. Before I describe these alfalfa farms at Danbury, let me go back into the country half way between Danbury and Lebanon. where 1 left Sant eles- ner on his farm. I met him first at Lebanon, where lie w loading a car of fat cows for shiproent to Omaha. I saw these cows as 1 got off the train at Lebanon, that they were unusually tine looking, and Mr. Mesuer informed me that they had not tasted grain, either winter or summer, but had been raised and fattened on alfalfa alone. Twenty-three years ago, a young man then, he lived at Fairbury. Every- body had the -blues there then. There was a very light crop. almost a total failure in 1573 and 1874. Nearly every- body was diecouraged. All the people were poor there then, and the farmers placed but little value on that land t now worth Ifee to 940 an acre). just as softie people here place but little value on this land now. Some of the farm- ers there who had borrowed 0300 each on their farms. abandoned them, and said to Sum as they went away: •'N'ou van have that laset just as it is for noth- ing if you want it. It is DO use to its. But Sam was young then. unmarried. and he didn't want land. Ile hail heard of the buffalo that were then plenty in lied Willow county, and he longed to get on a strong horse. ender a big white hat, and ride free and bold among the buffet° on the plain. Ile came with some other young men and took up his temporary abode in a small cabin among the trees on tile Beaver. near where his present comfortable farm dwelling now stands. For several years he lived much in the saddle. sleeping at night wherever night found him, on the soft, broe n buffalo grass. giving no thought to land, or home. or settled conditions of lifts Some of the boys took up land, and they wanted Sam to take some, tint land here had no seine then, and so far as he iseild see, never would have. eonau of the boys took up land, built theinielves little homes and married wet's. one by one these bold riders settled down into quiet mid civ- ilized life, ate' Sam. finding the long rides across the plain to the mountains and 'back lonesome without his old companions. married and settled down too p to Beet the seasons N% ere favora- ble and the crop conditions good. But 1590 was a dry year. There was a scarcity of hay and rouglinees and Ineny farmers on the uplands sold their stock for whatever they couhi get. Meener. who hail made some progress in alfalfa, had plenty of hay and buy and feed all the stock that tame his way. Here is where alfalfa hay gave him a big boost. lIe had a supply of old hay on band. It will fatten hogs and cattle as %%ell when it is trite or two years old as when it is new. The al- falfa farmer always keeps a supply on hand. so that when his neighbors are short of feed and offer their . vonng stock for sale he can take them. Ile made enough money that year to pay off $3,000 of debt that he had ineerred luy the purchase of additional land. Al- falfa hal served him so well during the dry year of 1890 that he enlarged his tielda in '91, 'WS and est. From Sep- tember. 1593, to eeptember. Pest, he ItOill from the farm Ir.',700 worth of hogs that had been brought to mator- ity and flit tened largely on alfalfa lie sold that same year worth of fat steers that had subsisted chiefly on al- falfa. Ile llita , (1 ii, is money to buy twire land. Be now has ntio acres in this farm Ile showed me a carload of fat hog', nearly ready for the market that arc now being fed a little eorn tit hard- en them up and give them weight. Ile showed hie list head of tine shoats in the clover field. growing rapid y aittl thriving without grain. Ile showed me twenty -eye fat steers that us iii be ready to ship in thirty days. Ile showed me too tons of el falfa hav in the stack, besides loo acres that will yield another cutting yet this year l.ast star he cut twelve acres for aeed, from which he threshed bushels, hi t h hold at a bushel. Ile has a good hank acrount and does not owe a dollar Mesner lelleees that alfalfa will rev- olutionise the stock industry all over eestern Net,' atesn Ile helieyea it will inangurzte a new k . t Stein of farm inan- agement that will rim ti h tg'S and cattle, less to wheat and mita and atop the sale of tent it, it. Ile thines the corn arid wheat t misers a ork too herd with their hands and not enough with their brain.). It. is not hued eork. lint good management thst innkrs a farmer rich. Ile nays that alfalfa will not stay on a farm year after year and work aide by side in harmony with a mortgage Whenever alfalfa begins to get in its work, begins to pet. fat on rattle anti hogs, the mortsrnee folds en tent lil,e an Arab and eilently steals away. tsow I have proven an ti•fac torily, to myself at least in my ob- servations here in the hist ten days. that this is literally true. in all my inquiry 1 have not yet heard of a single alfalfa farmer eho is not well-to-do and out of debt. Row could it be ollierwise with the phenomenal r --,, that hive been „., realized from this clover in the last two years? It may be true that these enormous profits will never again be realized. I find men every day who have no alfalfa of their own, men who are always ready to prophesy evil to every new enterprise, repeating this suggestion, that alfalfa ;sill soon be overdone, that the seed will comedown in price to $.2 a bushel end tha t the hay, when it becomes plenty, will not sell for more than $:1 or $4 IS ton, and some of these men, when they speak of this. act as if they really wished that it might come true. But 1 say, let it come true. anti still it will be worth more by the acre than any outer crop. and will go right on making beef anti pork just the saint'. What the hay and the seed will be worth is a shallow ilew to take of the alfalfa question. It is its meat ornameng power that gives it its value. Meat will always be val- uable and whatever crop will produce the most meat per acre will be the most valued oecupant of the ground. Sam Mesner last winter turned a drove of hogs into a stack yard where they att. the staeks down little by lit- tle. every straw, f all through the win- ter anti kept in good condition without a mouthful of grain. Now, it may be said, if all these things ore true about this new clover, why is there not a green spot on every Nebraska farm'.' I can't answer that. 1 cannot ex- plain why Nebraska farmers anti all other farmers and all other people will spend their time anti money and mind force in reaching out for reforms that can come only by evolution, that are beyond the reach of the individual, while t hose practical reforms which aro within the reach of the individual are overlooked anti neglected from year to year and from generation to genera- tion. It has always been true, not only among far tiers, but among all classes of men, that they are too slow to adopt a hew system that changes radically the detail of their business affairs, or the every -day routine of their lives. If you ask me to prophesy as to when all tne farmers of western Nebraska will be imitating these alfalfa farmers of the Republican and Beaver valleys; when they will shake off the environ- ment of le -cent corn anti Stecent wheat and inaugurate in their stead a system of meat prodnetion that will lift every mortgage and pet every farmer on his feet financially. then I say, 11:130 , A irig as I do the indefatigable grit and the pro- gressive spirit of Nebraska people; knowing that the record of this farm- ing state in the last twenty yeats for progressive development, is not equaled by more than one state in the union, and is not excelled by any community of farmers in the world, in ten years from now our valleys will all be greer„, our uplands will all be subsoiled, anh' our no,oteetton brisheis of annual corn seeld will be consumed and comerted into meat on the farms where it is pro- duced. The campaign against the grain speculator is already begun, not by the blathering politician, not in the brawls of political jealousy, but at the homes of industrious, pente-loving mere where cows give rich milk, anti where white honey from the al fat fa meadows is on the farmer's table. Now I can't talk alfalfa. I don't know the points. I am only a student. I am trying to learn about it anti in my investigations I ten simnly recording results as I tind them where the indus- try has been inaug orate& I a rn not a farmer and I do not presume to lecture farmers or give them advice. But I love Nebraska and I believe in its fu- ture. I helie•e that every man who has a (arm home ,n this state and who holtia onto it, will see the day not far in the future when there will be plenty of buyers and few sellers of Nebraska land and When the farmers here will be surrounded a ith suet' vonditions of etenfort lbw they will feel amply re- paid for all the anxiety of these hard times In inc next letter from tile; point I will relate the results of alfalfa aceortling to the experienee of the Da: f brothers and the Aeliton brothers here. and I will try to give as I have received from them. some of the praetical de- tails neeessars. to success in the raising of alfalfa and in making monies. OD western Nebraska land. --- MISSING LINKS The maximum age a-siegreid to the pine is 700 years A cannon ball tire,I from one of the great Knipp or A Tract rong alias travels at the speed of 2,5.47 feet per second. According to figures and statistics prepared by the provost ;parallel the wars of the past thirty years have blotted out 2.Zi00.00A Observe, Iona recently made on a criminal beheteled In Frame proved that the iiaauI ilentS continued for six minutes after the ax fell. The number of volleys fired over a soldier's grave depends imen the num- ber of companlem in the regiment. each company flring one volley. Among every 1.000 inhabitants in the United StRfes there la an average of 381 who :i!e under 16: In France there are only 270 such to the I isle At the present Ortie some 100 eork - Men are engaged in o , .erhatiling Low- ther i :lath', in preparation fot the visit of the German elopes or in %tutus' I, thellie (the iteeithe I. - remit news- paper of Neu Orleans. has Jost entered upon the seventieth year or its pelt- lication. It is bit/ring at it ihely rail 8ti i ii If he AIL., tic ocean could hAve a layer of water 6.0041 feet deep removed from ita surface Is would only reiluee the width of that great limi) of water one half A bustrees firm en tee floor of a Market street building In Philadel- phia In which there in no elevator m•- joices In the naive of - Walkup Broth - era.\ lies the howl that think• it ought to , Weer • r.ten RATE GOOD CAUSES.. — -- AP•ERICAN CITIZENS TELL WHY THEY LOVE BIMETALLISM. The Fraudatent Claim that This Country is No on a HInu.taitlt, Bails Ridiculed Only Free Coinage of Silver Will Remedy Matters. The Chicago Evening Press has come up to a bimetallic basis. It couldn•t get along on the single gold standard. Like many business institutions the Press nearly went under during the thick of the gold standard (ward) which began in 1893. It is now on the right road to prosperity anti is doing a great Work in the good (-Ruse. Its communi- cations on \Why I Favor Free Silver Coinage. - form an interesting feature. here are some of them . The story in Brief. I favor the free anti unlimited coin - Age of silver because the constitution of the United States pro) ides for it. and by the coinage of gold and ails er it fixed ratios an Amen -an systetn of finance was developed, which in a com- paratively few years made Ameritia the greatest nation on earth. From the foundation of the government, until sil- ver was demonetized In 1573, every American industry was eneouraged and development went rapidly forward. Since silver was demonetized there has been a stead, decrease of agricul- tural industries awl a decreased 'de- mand for labor of all kinds, until to- day about 3,000,000 of strong and will- ing men are denied sufficient employ- ' • P GOLD ANa5/LVER, ' STANDARD. 16n71 then be in a position to. exact a higher reward for its products. Interest would decrease to a point where money -lend- ing, as a business, would become so un- profitable that those engaged therein would be compelled to render a more substantial equivalent to society for their right to live by entering indus- trial pursuits. 2. Because primary money is a crea- tion of government and has, to the or- dinary man, little or no value lentil it bears the stamp of government ap- proval. We can neither eat nor wear gold or silver In bullion form; but after they bear the stamp of government we can procure that which we wish to eat or wear. Should gold be demonetized by an atie of congress. it would have no purchasing power in every day tran- sactions. By the same law and act re- monetizing sliver would give it full purchasing power, independent of gold. 3. Because the United States is the greatest allyer producing country in the world. By giving the white metal full monetary functions our wealth would he much greater. We would not be compelled to go abroad for capital every year. We wottld not have to give away our wheat and corn anti other products of American labor to pay the Interest on foreign loans. 4. Because the mortgage sharks of the country could le quickly paid off as a result of more money and higher prim -es for labor and its products. 5. Because the act of 1873, which demonetized the sliver dollar, was really intended to give the dollar a higher funetion as money than it had been enjoying. Stich would have been the ease had the act not been \doc- tored\ in the manner proved by Mn, Gamey In his debate with R. G. Dom 6. Besattse. as Gen. Grant afterward wrote, the original act of 1873 Ithe one that was passed anti afterward \doc- tored\) was intended to convert the sil- ver in our mines into money. 7. Because the \doctoring - of that act has enriched the nonproducing element of society and all but beggared the great masses of the American people.— V. J. Devlin. 0 Prot Enough Gold. The great and necessarily growing strife among the gold standard coun- _ SINGLE_ GOLD s 57 AVOW). k_91 - iNi./0111M Vrr4074-1 mew to comfortably provide for those depending upon them for support, and this ill time of boiintifill harvests. Th.. constitution having provided fur the i-oinage of both gold and Filers - . eel reserved the prerogative of soinaee ex elitalvely for the government. nu act :if congzeas can legally dens the right of mintage to either metal This country hes gone into deht dur- ing the last fiscal ear over $260.000.000. anti this nation itself lost In !mine ts and exporte for the year over $5 00 . 0 00.- 000. This policy continued, the nation will either become bankrupt or a mon- archy. While these conditions exist ru lu\ United Staten, Mexiso. just am -roes our borders. IIFIR (1PerellSed her Imports one- half and doubled her exports for the fiscal yea]. hut Mexico Is on a silver basis, t February the London Economkt said: \If the l'nited States should go to a slivcr basis she mild compel Eng- land to shange her monetary system within SIX utloult ii favor free sulker because the lucra- tive trade manufacturers had :Se- cured from China. Japan. Mexico and other silver nations is GmbH, being transtferree to manufacturers of those conntriea through the operation of es - change, rind when once enehored tit those sotintriesi employing cheap ether It is forte en lost to Americen marmite - titters and workmrn. and a ehange of our mere tary laws i.i the only pi -sue', the. I an coneolve of I fa . .., free silver liecalise ever , , icgi tenets merIcan interest &intones it It W a 4 demonetized liv the dictation and onni,.ince or En g lish eg n stanst, who we have since been selling bonds to that t• might obtain gold we helped to i•reale siieh an unnatural demand for, and dnehle ite.v•Ine. there!), enriching theft). if impoverlahing its u Fee It Eight (lewd Re••on• I. no, agile the rernon.titat inn If all - '•r would increase the amount of per capita riroulatios. with the effect that prices of commodities would rise to Meet the new conditions Labor would tries to obtain and retain a sufficient amount of gold for acttial needs, has eaused it to advance In Valli:. when Measured by any of the leading prod- ucts of human industry. It has stood at par onls . when measeired by itself. Am gold advances In v•lite, all those sommodities meapured by it have an appearance of derlIning, and until a rerned le adopted to stop this increase no permanent improvement In the stability of prices ean be depended upon It 141 unnattii - al and htimIliating to think that this great nation should be sompelled to pay speculators' prices far 860,000,000 of gold to replenish our treasuiry while we have In silver a) ail - able to take the place of this gold nearly ten times as much, to say noth- ing of the many rish hut undeveloped mines. Bimetallism would bring our silver Into use as teilemption money. which would he the measure of s elite while gold Was tie t ti Img Both gold and all would •0011 rea h a common level anti remain a ithout material fluctua- tions If 1, - ,old v, is temporarily driven out of iilation, If tioce4SlarY we could (tend atoned for It its , AP do now. but there Is no reason such diaappearance \Mould aline fin:instal dieorder, as the eatei amount of silver will tithe Its Pt Another point London make the price of our er? We will make out own pi Ice at the ratio of it; to I If by 140 doing only one mine es mien Is 1,011Pille.l. congratulate him If It arida to the wealth of 100 or 1,000 of our people, an nee h the better. For my pRrt. I believe that the romonetiza Bon of sliver at the earliest possible moment will henefl . every rommunite and nyci v teenier , Yours tree,. Flanders Two I until. May (lam ssi, If Dr. Kelton Thomas. of Brookline, follows the example of Dv. Brooks) Her. ford and returns to his native England. Boston will miss a good Englishman and Loudon will sails a good yank.. NEWSPAPER CUTS. How the Illustrations tor sew•papers• Are Prepared end Made. Probably in no department of the modern newspaper has the develop- ment bean so rapid as that of eroducIng the picturee and illustrations which go to make attractive the articles on daily happenings. Twenty years ago an edi- tor considered himself lucky if he could have a \cut\ made and ready for his \forms'' in ten days. Now. the draw- ings are made and the \cuts\ finished in front one hom• to an hour anti a half. When an accident, disaster, or any- thing else of Its happens In the morning. newspaper readers expect to s n e o epi , t a .t i t ) t . i . . r e s s . of I he mat t el - ill after- on i To explain this comparatively new art is the purpose of this article. Anil, to tiegit, the subject at the foremost end, one nuist speak of the newspaper artist. In the first place, he is a type by himself . Ile is even different from the individual who doeis the work for Frank Leslie's and Harper's Weeklies. They have plenty of time to correct er- rors. The newspaper man hasn't, lie must be rapid, aectirate and withal fin- ished, lie intist be able to draw every- where, under any condition. tied yet prothice very creditable work. There are scores of these men. Theis names are too numerous to mention. To the cartoonist the editor gives an idea of what he desires. A photograph, if a likeness is wanted, is handed to the illitetrating artist. If it is ... a picture or a railroad wreck or anything of this kind that is needed, the artist makes a trip to the accrue with his first cousin, the reporter. and he takes in lines what the writer puts in words. From the artist the picture then goes to that part of the building where the 'illustrating department - Is located. The man in charge is an expert In \photo engraving\ or - zinc etching. - Ile seizes the drawing . slaps it into a frame before a powerful camera, and the picture itt photographed with a den- sity that would give the president of an amateur club spasms. The negative is, altnost black. but through it the lines of the sketch show- with white transparency. Then a piece of zine, the size the cut is to lei, is covered with a secret solution, which has the property of becoming insoluble when affected by light. On this the powerful rap of an electric light are thrown through the white lines of the negative. and a pic- ture, almost invisible to the eye, on the zinc is the result. The whole suresee of the zinc is then lightly rolled with etchers' ink, after which it is given a bath in a limb of water. Wherever the stirface of the plate has remained un- affected by the light the film dissolves, carrying avsay with it the ink This, of conrse, leaves the ineoluble lines on the plate, and by a few deft toliehe8 with a piece of cotton the operator brings the picture Into view. The lines are then dusted with a powder made of \dragons' blood.\ which adheres to the sticky etchers' ink and forms a pro- tection to them from the acid. In which the plate is next immersed. In this last immersion the surface of the plate Wili4:11 is unprotected by the powder is eaten away by the acid, leaving the lines In relief. The plat.. is then fin - tithed, requiring an hour or an hour and a half . and it then goes to the form. e Cost of Living in Paris. An able statimtician ham leen estimat- ing the cost of living in l'aris at the present lime. and has compared it with that of forty years ago lie shows that In the fifties an average middle-claes family could do with a budget of J 1 ',000f. or 1400 arum:ilk That did not mean luxury, but it was sufficient for com- fort, Red ref - mired no economical engi- neering for the purpose of making both ends meet. Nowadays the (age is dif- ferent, and an official with a wife and three children dependent on 10.100f a sear has to work miracles of saving it artier to avoid getting into debt. Ar- cordingly, In less than half a century, the conditions of life in Paris have been completely modified It is no exaggera- tlen, in fart, to ass that prices have doubled. anti with them has o ses p es „,i the ;lest!\ for a more loam - ions mode of living than that led by the everage Per Islan of the fifties, The statistician hiss resealed nothing ties'. hill Mit figure. item.' to emphasize the fact that the French capital is the must expenskc place of residence In P,tirope I orkey's RultiJ•rt• and Pt - nimbly TlIrkkli rale In Armenia Is r e it much worae than In Mace Ionia. And. If the Armenians are to his piti I, so are the Macedonians, for the 'fere Is .1 blighting curse to every sithpet rat r• within his dominion's if we ere set- ' ere In our fervor for good govertim,it in Turkey sue must renounce the Hee u• sacrificing theme races to our poiIii- cal aim of maintaining Terkey r a Intl- eses e evilest ItursItt. This was the doctrine of Mr. Oladetonet, an.I roundly hart lie been abused for It. The con- trary doctrine ham been that of Id rd Sallebury and Lord Rosebery. Mn, Glamintone recognized the paramount obligation of conscience; Lord Ito„, -, o , bery, Lord Salisbury. and, =till , ' MI their predecessors enbordinated cos - science to what they regardfad al QM exigencies of policy.