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Kendall, Montana, October 20, 1903. 3. PRA NSAIITS DISEASE: That Mosquito Carries Yellow Fever Is an Established Fact. - rurprbang That the Theory Was Not lilt Upon Long Ago Q (Inc Methods Will Probably Be Modified. The yellow fever sympor.iunt sat the .1merican Public Health association was a most interesting contribution to sanitary science on many points convincing . to the laity. A disease which caused America many thou- sands of lives and many disturbiag panics in the past was stripped of utios.t of its horrors and shown to be one of the most easily controlled and protected againtit. When we read from the history of -yellow fever thc - thousands of theories udvanced in re• gard to it, the wonder is that the . re- cent discoveries made of the trans- mission of the disease by moaquitoes was not 'stumbled on long ago, says the New Orleans Times -Democrat. For years the question whethc2 quarantine did or did not keep the fever out of a country was discussed, and at different times the quaran:in- ists and anti-quarantinists were \on top.\ The contraission appointed, in 1853 to investigate the epidemic of that year was doubtful on MOS' points, and Was convinced on only one, that the disturbance of the earth, excavations during the sum- mer, tended to cause the spread of the disease, and as a res\. - .1t of this report nearly all public Improvo• ments were seriously handicAppeti. rats were looked on with stispi- cion, then filth, decaying vegetat1on; an excessive ralnfall, the water sups and a dozen other causes were cited for the disease. In many case', these- theories We apparently sup ; ported by the prevailing conditions. but another year the conditich, changed and theories formerly up- held and apparently built upon rock were completely shattered. It seems strange. cons'dering how often and how carefully the subject was investigated, that the recent dis- coveries in regard to the mosquito and yellow fever were not made. There were some vague hints on this point, but nothing t s attract general attention or bring about the accept- _ linc.c..91..the manquitu.theory by phy tsicians and sanitarian,. Yet as soon ns this idea was acifanced it wns seew that, alone of all thti theories, it filled every condition Of the diseine and explained every apparent peculi• arity about it. Tile discussion . before the Ameri- can Public Health association fully confirmed what has already been said on Shia subjeet. Teo , matter is no longer a tbeetti ( but an estithilsheA fact, as thoroughly , demonstrated as any scientific question haa ever keen. Practical experinicats made in half a dozen difterect localities all brought the same result, and micro- scopy explained and proved them. The convention was unanimous on the point that the mosquito could oud did transmit yellow fever front is person affected by it to another. Doctors from Cuba and Mex:co agreed with the physiciana of Cita country, nnd the evidence was a-. overwhelming that no one who has investigated`the matter can longer entertain a doubt. This makes protection against, the fever far simpler than we have evss thought it to be, and does away with the complicatcd, expensive, and often brutal quarantine systems which have froquently bean resorted to in the past. The annihilation of the mosquitoes in a commtinity would ca - sure it complete imuumity if inostpti- toes are the sole means of transmit- ting the disease; or if this ann:hilo Out be impossible, an ottlibary tnos Willi) bar for the person s:ck low fe‘er. so as to prcent the quit oes from getting at him, and - thus becoming infected and the - m ove o f dot gr r to others, is h e simple pro- tection needed. It will be noted that on one po.:131 the members of the association %yeti , not fully agreed. All accepted the mosquito theory, that the insect could transmit yellow fever. ma- jority were of the opinion that,thg disease was transmitted only in 'OR was , . but the minority, while tin. - to produce any very strang e'rdellrie to the contrary, refused to necellt that proposition and favored the Scotch verdict. \Not proven.\ In other words, while the evidence tit strongly and, indeed, convincingly ;n favor of the mosquito theory, it gess , not prove that the disease cannot t An propagated by fomites or in ot'ivir ways. To a lay mind this conclusion seems to be a prudent if not a cor- rect one. It is not pretended the' the mosquito creates or generates the disease. but simply that it trars- mita it from one person to another. The origin of the fever is, therefore. due to some other cause, and it would seem that' this cause which origi- nally. produced .it may produce again. It would seem wise, there- fore, not to go too far, not to aban- don all the satertinrfis of quaran- tine, but to keep up an investigati• Ii which has been productive of cmi . 1 excellent results and which we may hope to see sooner or later explain all the mysteries of this malady. There has been perhaps too great willingness of Issie tAs accent new sci- entific theories as proved in all pa :. - Oculars. We saw this in the thetifiss advanced by Koch and others relat- ing to tuberculosis. Let us go a lit- tle slowly in the matter, as nothing can be lost by doing so. MEN OF RENOWN ABROAD. Justice Mathew, of London, who was recently made one of the lord justices of appeal, is a nephew and namesake of the famous Father Mathew, the great temperance advo- cate. Mayor Des Planches, the new Ital- ian ambassador, is the youngest am- bassador in Washington, being but 19. He began his diplomatic career as chief of the cabinet of the Italian minister of foreign affairs. Earl Russell, who has just been re- leased from his incarceration in Hol- loway jail, England, has turned his experiences there to praciical ac- count by delivering a largely -attend- ed lecture on British prison life. He said it was not so bad as miglit, be supposed except that the chiropod- ists were amateurs. • Marcellin Herthlot, a distinguished French chemist, after discussing the merits and demerits of the systems tof_eapital punishment now in vogue, pronounces in favor of carbon dioxide, a gas used for the destruc- tion of stray dogs. He says thls is a quiet and painless death and one that does not shock the sensibilities. Count Metternich, who is likely to succeed Count von Ratzfeldt as Ger- man ambassador to Londcm, is well known in English society. For some years the count was in Egypt, and there formed friendships with con- siderable numbers of English fans - Hies wintering on the Nile. count Metternic.h is a handsome man, a fine rider, a philosopher, a thinker and - an untiring worker. He is a pro- found believer in the kaiser. President Sends Autograph Plerture to Oat or Quadruplets at Toledo Named Atle Him,. A letter and autograph Ats rettOcted by Mayor Jones the other day from President Roosevelt. The letter and photograph were for the aembers of the StaniEhtus Spp-chalski family, in which quadruplets were born. Tht re were two girls and two boys, and one of the boys was named Theodsre Roosevelt. In his letter the president says: \I am much interested in the ease, as one of the boys is named after me, and I thoroughly believe in large fatu- ities.\ Across the photograph was written, \With congratulut ions, Theodore Roosevelt, January '23, 1903.\ • 4. 4. 4 . 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