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14 G R E A T F A L L S A N D E N V I R O N S . tion works to cost $2,000,000 to $5,000,000 at that city, and $500,000 will be spent in developing her great water power on the Missouri during the season. The magnificent coking and smelt ing coals of Northern Montana will be developed this year by the construction of the Great Falls & Canada railway. T H E M IN E R A L O U T P U T O F B U T T E , the greatest mining camp in the world, has steadily augmented dur ing the current year, with a production of silver and copper to the value of $22,000,000 for 1888, and the estimates of 1889 will ma terially increase that gigantic sum of money. Montana sees the end of 1889 and the beginning of 1890 with marked prosperity in all of her varied interests and industries. With an area of 180,000 square miles (as large as four states the size of Pennsylvania), she offers to the grain farmer and stock raiser, the miner as well as the business man, opportunities which when utilized must lead to permanent growth and prosperity. T h e ]VIinet*al l^esoui*ees of JSlot*thei?n M o n tana. No city in the northwest has been favored by nature as much as Great Falls. This applies to its central position in regard to the various mining districts; its unlimited water power, now going to be utilized on a gigantic scale; the enormous extent of the adjacent coal fields, and her more immediately surrounding agricultural regions. The founder o f the city , Paris Gibson , with admirable sagacity, foresaw the results of this combination of advantages before any steps were taken to erect a building; and they are potent to our eyes at the present time in the network of railroads pushing from Great Falls in every direction and tapping the principal mining regions of Northern Montana. We also see one section of the great Montana silver and lead smelting works completed, with another section ready to be commenced, the works being admirably adapted to the ores produced in this section, thus affording home market to the miner as well as considerable work to the laborer and mechanic. We also see the great Missouri dam about to be commenced, as well as the imme diate vast construction of the copper works of the Boston & Mon tana Silver & Copper Smelting & Refining Company. All miners are cognizant of the fact that, however good a min ing camp may be, it requires cheap and rapid transportation to de velop its resources fully and thoroughly. This has been fully exem plified, not only in Montana, but in all other mining states. It is therefore patent to every one that Great Falls, with its splendid railroad system of trunk and branch lines, its tremendous water power and vast coal fields, together with her rich mineral districts, in the immediate future is destined to occupy a station which will be the envy of other western cities. It is now about ten years since prospecting first commenced in these mountains, and work even as late as five or six years ago was confined to about four or five localities. At the present time there is hardly a gulch or valley in the entire range but what has more or less mining done on some part of its area. Some of these sections may possibly lie dormant for a brief period longer, but the railroad now under construction will this spring bring into immediate prom inence two of the oldest mining camps, namely, Neihart and Barker. Between Neihart and Glendennin lies what is known as the Carpenter district, whose locations are mostly on the tributaries of Carpenter creek. Snow creek, one of these streams, has some valuable locations of free milling silver ores, whose known area is constantly extending by new discoveries. As we approach the divide between Barker and this district, considerable copper is found asso ciated with silver and lead ores, and a great many mining locations have been made. In Neihart milling ores are the rule, but in this district they are the exception, as nearly all the ores here are smelt ing ores. From here to Barker is a continued succession of claims, which are yet awaiting development. Arriving in the vicinity of Clendennin, we find ourselves in a series of carbonate deposits which stretch through these mountains, from Black Butte to the Judith river. They are valuable compo nents with the Neihart ores in smelting operations, as they contain the necessary fluxes. Space will not allow a detailed description of the claims, either in these camps or in any others. Suffice it to say, there are several here which are known to be valuable properties, and that capital and labor are now developing them. From Barker all along the east slope of the Belt to the Judith river there are mining claims in every valley, most of which are carbonate ores carrying silver, gold and lead, some of which are patented, and