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THE FLATHEAD COURIER work, which they continued during the Camped on Platte River winter of 1863 and 1864. Those were Reaching Denver they camped on the the days of the highwaymen and the Platte river at the mouth of Cherry Vigilantes in the gold camps, and creek. The family lived in a tent while Morrow saw much of both. He assisted Morrow hauled logs from the moun- in the operations of the Vigilantes upon (sins with which to construct a cabin, numerous occasions, and one of his When the Morrows arrived at Denver, early neighbors was the notorious their entire cash capital amounted to George Ives, later hanged by the \rig - S2.50 and this Morrow spent for an ilantes. He lived in Wisconsin slough ax with which to cut logs for their cabin. Mrs. Morrow and the children sold the milk from the cows to their neighbor campers along the river and in that way they got along comfortably, leaving Morrow free to prospect for gold after the cabin was finished. He was unsuccessful in his mining efforts, however, and in the fall the MODERN WOMEN Denver Trip Cost Morrow a Paying GoId Mine; Partner Sold It and Left While He Was Away 0 M EN who came to Montana 75 years ago to wring a living for themselves and families from the mountains and plains of this northwestern wilderness hauling wood one day arose each morning prepared to face of recruits for the Union army who and conquer some new condition of were on their way to New Mexico. The which they had not known the Say officer in command asked Morrow to before; to solve some new problem which, if left unsolved, might render the efforts they had already made futile, and halt their further progress. It was a state of mind peculiar to the pioneer. It was possessed to an unusual degree by Malcolm Morrow, early -day Montana miner, freighter and stock- man. When in 1864, he returned to Virginia City from a trip to Denver where he had gone after his family, family moved to a creek not far away where timber was plentiful, and there he cut cordwood, which .he hauled to Denver and sold for $15 a cord. While unload his wood and haul supplies for the army, which he did. He kept at that work for three months. In 1863 Morrow and his nine -year - old son, William, made a trip from Denver to Nebraska City, on the Mis- souri river below Omaha, for the pur- pose of buying mining tools. some thickens and some more cows. They made the journey with two yoke of oxen. The son, William F. Morrow, for to find that during his absence h partner had sold their mine and - many years one of the leading citizens dis appeared with the proceeds, he went ahead just as though he had never owned a mine. The property which Morrow and his partner, a man named Kennedy, had been working, was located in Bevin's lch not far from Virginia City. They of Chouteau county, recalled that the only habitations they saw during the trip were the adobe stations of the pony express riders. Buffalo, antelope, deer and other wlld game of the prairie they saw by the thousands. Enroute they fell in with two b had come into the country from Cob- brothers, freighters, Nick and Johh Pearson, and all traveled together for rado the previous year, Morrow leav- ing his family there until he could a time. The Pearsons had just killed a get settled in Montana. His trip back buffalo and invited Morrow to help after them took several months, himself to the meat. He cut out several When upon his return with his wife and children he found that his partner had sold the mine and decamped, he took a claim at the junction of Cal- fornia and Harris gulches near Virginia City and began to peddle milk and butter to the mining camps. He was enabled to do that because he had brought with him from Colorado 41 head of cattle, among them a large number of cows, and said to be the largest single bunch driven from Colo- rado to Montana in that early day. Malcolm Morrow eventually became one of the most widely known and highly respected of Montana's pioneers. He was born in Ontario in 1823 and in his youth learned the trade of bar- trip in safety, Joining the family on relmaker. In 1857 he and his wife and Plum creek, 14 miles from Denver. children emigrated to Dover, Ia.. where, Shortly after his return from the Itlis- for three years he worked at his trade souri river trip. Morrow heard the first and farmed. In 1860 he sold all of his news of the gold strike at Bannack Iowa possessions except his work cattle and Alder gulch in Montana. He hitched and a few cows. He equipped two one yoke of oxen to a light spring wagons and with his family joined the wagon and started for the new Eldo- Pike's peak gold rush across the plains. rado alone, leaving his family and be - The Morrows joined no wagon train, longings at their Plum creek home. and sometimes traveled entirely alone Joined Argonauts for several days at a time. Despite the He joined with other argonauts on his fact, however, that they were travers- way north and west and with one of Mg a region which swarmed with Cheyenne Pawnee and Arapahoe In- them the man Kennedy, he formed a partnership. They located a mining diens, they encountered no hosti le claim in Bevin's gulch and started parties. large pieces and tied them to the bows of the covered wagon to dry. Just after that they encountered 14 Pawnee In- dians, all on foot, armed with bows and arrows and in war paint. The Indians made no signs that they were hungry and looked longingly at the buffalo meat. Finally one of them climbed into the wagon and made as If to help himself to it. Morrow shoved him off the wagon, and the Indians all strung their bows. The Pearsons came running up and, faced by the four whites, three men and a boy, the In- dians took their departure. At Nebraska City Morrow obtained the things he had made the trip for and he and his son made the return not far from where Morrow and Ken- nedy were working in Bevin's gulch. When Ives held up and shot A. M. went there and bought a toll road Fort Benton and engaged in farming , Lon between Butte and Philipsburg. a ranch on Shonkin creek not far from or a nominalB little puzzled by -it all, but definitely wiser. Holter, who was operating a sawmill and an interest in a mine. Later at and cattle raising and also operated a Evidently theinvaders Short r o s f f Be ol: f icl it Litt- on Mill creek, it was morrow who found Trinity gulch he operated a butcher ferry across the Missouri river. He possible to live off the country through Montana Cattle Industry Had an Earily Beginning The cattle business of the north- west originated farther south, along the emigrant trail from Mis- souri to California. Oxen were gen- erally used there to haul the great covered wagons, and frequently emigrants hitched dairy cows ahead of their teams, to provide milk along the way. Using them as leaders was an easy method of driving them. It was soon discov- ered that along the emigrant trail there was a ready market for cattle, from which knowledge enterpris- ing business men were able to profit. Oxen, worn out by the long journey, were readily exchanged for fresh ones or purchased for I cash. Sometimes good dairy cows 1 , sold for 810, or were given for needed supplies at an almost pro- hibitive price. ulation—far more than were then on the ranges. Miners Turned Stockmen Some of the men who came here to mine soon wearied of the work, or, finding it' unprofitable, were 'forced to consider other means of earning a liv- ing. Then, too, late arrivals in the gold fields found all claims takeq. These could not mine but they could - farm or raise cattle. Land was to be had for the taking. Men drifted out from the mining camps to settle on ranches, large or small, and began to cultivate them. Most of these had little money to invest, but not a great deal was necessary to get a start, living as the pioneers were forced to do. The majority of those who later be- came large cattle owners began in a very modest fashion. At first they owned but a few head they purchased cheaply adding to the number as they were able. If they had a good range, they would buy from new arrivals their travel -worn cattle for a small amount, knowing well what a few months pas- turage would do for them. The new - corners sold cheaply, thinking the oxen ' were about ready to die, and in any event they did not come to Idaho to raise cattle but to mine gold and silver. /n this manner began the cattle bus- iness in Montana, which continued to increase at an unprecedented rate, un- til in 1868 there were said be nearly 30,000 head of cattle within Montana's borders. and 75,000 four Years later. It soon usurped the country once roamed over by immense herds of ; buffalo. Iron Clad Alibi For No Driver's License Is Heard In the upper picture is shown a group of workers with dust guns treat- ing an area infested with Mormon crickets. Lower photo shows dead crickets removed from irrigation canal after being killed by oil treat- ment. Photos courtesy of bureau of entomology and plant quarantine of United States department of agriculture. provided the only place members of Morrow owned one of the first the family had to sleep safe from the threshing machines in the Helena re - water. glen and threshed crops over a wide Built Home on Deer Creek area of country. His last mining yen - The next year he moved his family ture was over the mountain from the to the mouth of Deer creek and built head of Silver creek. a home, but he himself continued to After the death of his wife, Morrow take part in the gold rushes that came and his son. William, went to Fort along with astonishing frequency in Benton, where a daughter, the wife of those days. He joined in the stampede Dr. Frields, lived. F'rields was a noted to Lost Horse canyon in 1867 and when wagon hoes for the Garrison & Wyeth Georgetown was opened up in the re- freighting outfit. Morrow later took up the wounded man. whom Ives had left shop, his son. William, driving rh the finally disposed of his ferry and moved the Holter Hardware Co. in Helena with which to work quartz ore. Cruse buried at Fort Benton. He left several ' and became one of the state's wealthy later became a millionaire and was for sons and daughters, all of whom be - men, many years prior to his death a banker came prominent in various Montana Neel Net Sir mutely pain sad delay due to communities. nervousaram • eaptaure or susular causes. Cin-chca-ters Diamond handed Is are effective. reliable and gave Cibukk Eclat hold by all druggists for over Soyeara Ask for CHICHESTER PILLS 'Dig DIAMOND UAW HOW OFTEN CAN YOU KISS AND MAKE UP? 'DEW husbands can understand I why a wife should turn from • pleasant companion into a shrew for one whole week in every month. You can say \I'm sorry\ and kiss and make up easier before marriage than after. If you're wise and if you want to hold your hus- band, you won't be a three-quarter wife. For throe generations one woman has told another how to go \smil- ing through\ with Lydia E. Pink - ham's Vegetable Compound. It helps Nature tone up the system, thus lessening the discomforts from the functional disorders which women must endure in the three ordeals of life: I. Turning from girlhood to womanhood. 2. Pre- paring for motherhood. 3. Ap- proaching \middle age.\ Don't be a three-quarter wife, fake LYDIA E. PINK RAM'S V EG ET ABLE COMPOUND and cm \smiling Through.\ At one time when Morrow and an in Helena. Englishman named Thomas Baum were looking for a man wanted by the Vigilantes, they entered a cabin in F . 2 -WAY RELIEF for dead, and took him to a place of wagon that delivered the meat. ere to she b enc h no r th of Fort Benton would not sell to the enemy, and had FOR THE MISERY OF safety and dressed his wound, a bullet the elder Morrow helped Thomas Cruse where he farmed for several years. He taken the precaution to send such of gash in his scalp. Hotter later founded set up an armstra, a primitive machine died in 1890 at the age of 67 and is, their stock as they kept well out of the route of the soldiers. These latter ran short of beef. Then Johnson sent men to Three Forks and the Beaverhead to buy cattle in needed quantities. Even at that remote period, according to historians, cattle had increased in what is noW re - which five men were sleeping and in- spected each man until they found the one they wanted. Baum informed hirn Irst Yuktrele Ceebratnon at • Montana. for it is said Johnson's agents bought 300 head in Deer Lodge valley, e and 200 head on the Flathead, where utte as tage m The endless procession of trains across the plains during the travel j season, to say nothing of the immense !herds of buffalo which roamed over them, lowered the grass supply, mak- ing at necessary for cattle men to find better pasturage. To the north and west of the main chain of the Rockies, the Jesuit fathers had proved stock , could live and thrive. We are indebted to the Jesuits for the introduction of both cattle raising and agriculture into Montana, and, tradition has it, if Father DeSmet had chosen to divulge his knowledge that gold could be found there, they would have started the era of gold mining, also. The fathers no more welcomed the cattle men than they did the trappers. Their mission was to Christianize the Indians; and these white men's coming seriously hindered their work, at one time causing the temporary closing of St. Mary's mission. Yet, the cattlemen made their way north into the valley of the Beaver- head and to Three Forks, where they found good grazing. They might have remained in Utah but for the strife there between Gentiles and Mormons. When Albert Sidney Johnson led his troops into Utah. Gentile merchants there, and perhaps Mormon business men as well, in some instances, sold their goods, exchanged them for cattle or bought them and drove them north- ward before they should be captured or stampeded, their good business sense telling them there would be a demand for them. Not only was the safety of their own stock jeopardized through the Johnson invasion; that of the Mormons was likewise endangered. It was a good time to buy, as the Mormons would naturally be anxious to sell and do so which they passed. The Mormons ; that he had a warrant for his arrest. stockmen had taken their cattle to be Out of the reach of the Mormons. There was no difficulty experienced In purchasing the cattle, except what would be incurred by the long journey through a country infested with hostile Indians and equally hostile Mormons part of the way, and the dangers in- curred by all travelers in the wilder- ness. The cattle bought, the question of their delivery arose, the cattlemen absolutely refusing to deliver them be- ; his family in the spring of 1865. He exercises held in Butte were in the pretty good actor for an amateur, put cause of their tear of the Mormons. bought a ranch in the valley north of Loeber hall on East Broadway, where on the English play, 'Toodles,' and Finally the matter was compromised ' Helena and in 1866 he and his two the Western Union offices are ?law lo- Mrs. John Noyes played Mrs. Toodles. by those who had sold stock on the oldest sons started freighting from Fort eated. My father, Wlllicin Portal.. Miss Lizzie Self, the school teacher and Flathead, consenting to drive them to Benton to Helena, outfitting three played Santa Claus.\ The peopla of a sister of Judge Self of Ravalli Deer Lodge valley, where General the village gathered at the hall and county; and Dore Aiken were the ones Johnson's men could collect both bands Placed Presents for their loved ones on I remembered in the cast. There were and assume the responsibility of their the tree to be taken down and dis- la few others, but I have forgotten safe delivery. tributed by old Santa. their names. They played to a full Mr. Porter continued \was raised through the presentation of a p l ay 1876. : held a community tree Christmas eve, house and out of the proceeds was , a great stimulus to the cattle industry This sale to General Johnson was Beef Steaks in Bannack \The money for the community tree,\ I called 'Toodles.' My father played the \All the people, practically, in thel in what is now Montana. It was soon Noyes played 'Mrs. Toodles.' : families brought their Christmas pres- , to receive a greater one. For a short part of 'Mr. Toodles' and Mrs. John community were present. Most of t time after the discovery of gold, there he ' \Butte was not a promising town in . cuts and placed them upon this tree , was plenty of game together with beef to be distributed by Santa Claus. My ' to supply the miners. Even as late as 1876. Six years before, the population, exclusive of those who might be living father, William Porter was the Santa 1863 and later. this was the case. b al t h,,1 This was not altogether due to the cattle on the ranges, but to the fact that most miners and others com- ing into this country drove oxen. The The prisoner was reluctant to accom- pany them, and Baum dragged him to his feet and out the door while Morrow \Where was the first community who afterwards became bishop of Min - held a gun on the man's four COM- Christmas tree held in Butte and , nesota; Rev. Van Orsdell. Methodist pardons, in what year?\ asked George P. minister, known to everyone as After Morrow returned from Denver Porter several years ago. \Who 'Brother Van': also Father Doyle and in the fall of 1864 to find that his played Santa Claus and how was Father DeRyckere. partner had sold their mine and de- the ntonie l L raised?\ Mr. Porter an- \These wonderful men came into camped, to them at their new location trwered own questions as tot- Butte and held services, and as stated. came news of the gold strike in LEASE the people of Butte wanted a Christ - Chance gulch. There Morrow went with \The first Chirstrnas community tree roes tree, and my father, who was a freight wagons, each drawn by three yoke of oxen. Morrow still had the wagons and cattle with which he had crossed the plains. They loaded each of the wagons with 4,000 pounds for each trip. The road was primitive, nothing but a trail in fact, at that time. At two points, Med- icine Rock and Lyon's hill, it took nine yoke of oxen to pull one wagon over the ridges. In the fall of 1866 Morrow and his son, William, made a trip to Provo, Utah, and brought back two loads of flour. At their ranch on the Prickly Pear they built a scaffold in the house and piled the flour on top of it so that in case of flood from the creek, it would be undamaged. When the flood did come the flour was not only safe but ETHING TO BE THANKFUL FOR! 1 The Ring -neck Pheasant is a prize, That brings a glow to hunters' eyes; And for Thanksgiving Day, good friends, If you would get the prize in blends, CALL FOR CALVERT AT STATE STORES CALVERT'S \SPECIAL' MIMIT $2 S3 (Stick N. (0 1 PINT $1.111 (SOH Na RC ALSO CA IVOR'S \IESERVF' OUART 52.91 (BIN NS 11 5( PINT $1.30 (SOO Ns III) sp• ••10.5 to without wetle• WHISKIES outside the townsite, was only 350. The buildings were chiefly of logs scattered about in a sort of haphazard manner. \There was not a graded street in the city,\ says an old account. In 1880 the town had grown to 5.000 people. \There were a few one-story brick buildings, but most of the business was done in small wooden shacks.\ by Jackson, east by Arizona, s Park and on the north by \ bank,\ Copper street. \Neither a cut nor a fill h made in any street. The old Lie mill pounded away, night an across an unsightly gulch a bl of where the New Finlen ho stands. A few straggling houses were located on Park street west to Mon- tana. Beyond Montana the district was a barren waste. A deep gully cut across Broadway just west of where the Mon- tana Standard offices now stand. \The Columbia block on West Broad- way stands on a plot of ground that was used as a field for Cornish wrest- ling contests. The Clark bank was lo- cated where the First National bank now stands. These were the surround- ing's that were developing when Butte held its first community Christmas tree celebration.\ The town was bounded on the west outh •as. was a very Murray's , nr'arRabie gathering because it was Just simply one big happy family in which ad been almost everybody in the community falo shoes and a buffalo cap with the long white whiskers and jingling bells. The men who assisted him to take the presents off the tree all had buffalo journey ended. there existed no more caps and they were the members of the need of the oxen. They were turned cast of 'Mr. Toodles.' out to feed and rert. But a short time \There were presents for everybody. was required for them to be in prime There were apples. which then were a condition for killing, when they were luxury, and popcorn. The women had sold to the butchers. Such was the made stockings out of mosquito nets fate of the faithful animals that , and these were filled with popcorn, brought families across the plains and to t to their destination xington P artook.\ d day. Butte for many years followed the oe s cast custom of saluting the dawn of Christ- te i now mas with the popping of firecrackers Mr. Porter, who was born in Helena describes the first community Christ- of Strawbernes and came to Butte when a tiny lad, mss celebration in the following words: and the discharge of firearms much after the practice which still persists i of saluting dawn of the new year with , noise. ! Christmas on Broadway and Park suggested a Chinese New Year cele- bration on Mercury street. The ground would be littered with exploded fire- crackers. The custom was to hang a package of firecrackers on a telegraph pole—several of • them, in fact—and then touch them off. \This is just what happened: In 1876 there were no churches in Butte and quite often a minister or priest rode into the city on Saturday and held services. These services were held in the Loeber hall, which is the rear of the Calkins store on Broadway. \Many times I have seen J. R. Rus- sell, the Presbyterian minister, who came riding in on a big buckskin horse; Rev. Gilbert, the Episcopal minister, Life's Just a low! Red Lodge Area Evidence that Red Lodge recently experienced a warm and sunny autumn was furnished by Mrs. John C. Simp- son, who picked a bowl of strawberries from her garden one afternoon not long ago, enough of the fruit to pro- vide dinner dessert for her and her husband. over e moun a ns It was while on his way to Horse Prairie to drive some of them to town, Henry Tilden was held up by Henry Plummer and two of his band of des- peradoes, who were out to intercept Messrs. Hauser and Langford, who were starting east that evening. The gold discovery at Alder gulch caused a remarkable influx of miners into the territory and it became cer- tain that more cattle would solon be demanded to supply the increased pop - Here is a story of a motorist whose conception of driving laws, as so thor- oughly expounded by highway patrol superiors and officers, brought a look of encredulity to the court's face and a jolt to the driver's pocket. A driver appeared in court to answer charges of not having a driver's permit. When his case was called he readily admitted his lack of \Why I didn't need One to drive my own car, do I?\ he queried. The court gazed, dumbfounded. The driver went on to explain: \Now my son has a permit because he doesn't own a car— he drives mine. But me—well, I own the car!\ he finished proudly. Wearily the court explained the sit- uation and wound up things levying The motorist left the COLDS RELIEVES THROAT PAIN—RAWNESS ENTERS BODY THROUGH STOMACH AND INTESTINES TO EASE PAIR The speed with which Bayer tab- lets act in relieving the distressing symptoms of colds and accompany- ing sore throat is utterly amazing . . . and the treatment is simple and pleasant. This is all you do. Crush and dissolve three genuine Bayer Aspirin tablets in one-third glass of water. Then gargle with this mixture twice, holding Your head well back. This medicinal gargle will act almost like a local anesthetic on the sore, irritated membrane of your throat. Pain eases promptly; rawness is relieved. 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